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Toxicological Abbreviations
May 1998



  AA activation analysis; atomic absorption
  AAF acetylaminofluorene
  AAPCC American Association of Poison Control Centers
  AAS atomic absorption spectrophotometry
  ABS acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
  ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme
  ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
  ACh acetylcholine
  AChE acetylcholinesterase
  AcP acid phosphatase
  ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone
  AD Alzheimer's disease
  ADH alcohol dehydrogenase; anti-diuretic hormone
  ADI acceptable daily intake
  ADP adenosine diphosphate
  AEP auditory evoked potential
  AES atomic emission spectroscopy
  AFID alkali flame ionization detection
  Ah aromatic hydrocarbon
  AHH aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase
  ai active ingredient
  AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome
  AIN acute interstitial nephritis
  ALA aminolevulinic acid
  ALAD �-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase
  ALAS o-aminolevulinic acid synthetase
  ALAT alanine aminotransferase
  ALC approximate lethal concentration
  ALD approximate lethal dose
  ALMS atomic line molecular spectrometry
  ALT alanine aminotransferase
  AM alveolar macrophages
  AMP amperometric titration
  AMPA aminomethylphosphonic acid
  ANTU alpha-naphthylthiourea
  AP alkaline phosphatase
  APDM aminopyrine-N-demethylase
  APP ammonium polyphosphate
  AQG Air Quality Guidelines
  ARF acute renal failure
  ARL acceptable or tolerable residue limit
  ART alternate reproductive test
  ASAT aspartate aminotransferase
  ASV anodic stripping voltametry
  ATA alimentary toxic aleukia
  ATH alumina trihydrate
  ATPase adenosine triphosphatase
  AUC area under the curve
  AWI acceptable or tolerable weekly intake


  B bursa-dependent
  BA 2-bromoacrolein
  BAER brainstem auditory-evoked response
  BAF bioaccumulation factor
  BAL bronchoalveolar lavage
  BBB blood-brain barrier
  BBPP bis(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate
  BCF bioconcentration factor
  BEA 2-bromoethylamine
  BEI biological exposure index
  BEN Balkan endemic nephropathy
  BGG bovine gammaglobulin
  BHA butylated hydroxyanisole
  BHK baby hamster kidney
  BIC butyl isocyanate
  BMAA beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine
  BMD benchmark dose (US EPA)
  BMF biomagnification factor
  BOAA beta-N-oxalylamino-L-alanine
  BOD biochemical oxygen demand
  BP benzo[a]pyrene
  BSA bovine serum albumin
  BSP bromosulfophthalein
  BUB 2-(3-butylureido)benzimidazole
  BUN blood urea nitrogen
  bw body weight
  CA chrysanthemic acid
  CALLA common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia antigen
  cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate
  CAS Chemical Abstracts Service
  CBF cerebral blood flow
  CC critical concentration
  CCFA Codex Committee on Food Additives (see definition of Codex Alimentarious Commission)
  CCPR Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues
  CCTTE Computerized Listing of Chemicals Being Tested for Their Toxicological Effects (IPCS/IRPTC)
  CD cluster of differentiation; coulometric detection
  cDNA complementary DNA
  CE capillary electrophoresis
  CEC Commission of the European Communities
  CEFIC European Council of Chemical Industry Federations
  CFC chlorofluorocarbon
  cGMP cyclic guanosine monophosphate
  ChE cholinesterase
  CHO Chinese hamster ovary
  Ci curie(s)
  CI confidence interval
  CIN chronic interstitial nephritis
  CKSCC cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma
  Cl_2 CA 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid
  CLD chemiluminescence nitrogen detector
  CLM chemiluminescence method
  CLV ceiling value
  Cl-Vacid (= CPIA) 2-(4-chlorophenyl)isovaleric acid
  CMI cell-mediated immunity
  CML cell-mediated lympholysis
  CNS central nervous system
  COD chemical oxygen demand
  CO-Hb carboxyhaemoglobin
  COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  COT Committee on Toxicity (United Kingdom)
  cP centipoise(s)
  CP coproporphyrins
  CPA cyclopropane carboxylic acid
  CPK creatine phosphokinase
  CRMs certified reference materials
  CSF cerebrospinal fluid
  CSM Committee on Safety of Medicines (United Kingdom)
  CT computerized tomography
  cv coefficient of variation


  2,4-D 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
  DAB 4-dimethylaminobenzene
  DABA L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid
  DBCP 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane

di-n-butyl phthalate; 2,3-dibromopropanol

  DBT dibutyltin
  DCB dichlorobenzene
  DCVC S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine
  DDC diethyldithiocarbamate
  DDT dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
  DEHP diethylhexyl phthalate
  DEN diethylnitrosamine
  DES diethylstilbestrol
  DFB diflubenzuron
  DFP diisopropylfluorophosphate (a delayed neurotoxic)
  DHPN N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl) nitrosamine
  DiBP di-iso-butyl phthalate
  DIDT 5,6-dihydro-3H-imidazo (2,1-C)-1,2,4-dithiazole-3-thione
  DIT diiodotyrosine
  DL detection limit
  DMA dimethylamine
  DMBA dimethylbenzathraline
  DMF dimethylformamide
  DMP dimethylphenol
  DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide
  DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
  DNCB dinitrochlorobenzene
  DNPH 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine
  DOC dissolved organic carbon
  DPASV differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry
  DPTA degradation time for 50% of a compound
  DTPA diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid
  EBDC ethylene bisdithiocarbamate
  EBK ethyl n-butyl ketone
  EC effective concentration; electron capture; emulsifiable concentrate
  EC_50 median effective concentration
  ECD electron capture detection
  ECETOC European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre
  ECG electrocardiogram
  ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxidation
  ECOD 7-ethoxycoumarin-o-deethylase
  EDA ethylenediamine; exploratory data analysis
  EDB 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide)
  EDCF endothelial-derived contracting factor
  EDI ethylene diisothiocyanate
  EDL electrode discharge lamp
  EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
  2-EE 2-ethoxyethanol
  2-EEA 2-ethoxyethyl acetate
  EEC European Economic Community; electroencephalograph
  EEG electroencephalogram
  EGF epidermal growth factor
  EH epoxide hydratase
  EHC Environmental Health Criteria
  EI electron impact
  EIFAC European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission of FAO
  ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
  EMDI estimated maximum daily intake
  EMG electromyography
  EMTD estimated maximum tolerated dose
  ENG electroneurography
  ENL erythema nodosum leprosum
  ENU ethylnitrosourea
  EP electrophoresis
  EPA Environmental Protection Agency (USA)
  EPDM ethylene propylene rubber
  EPI exposure/potency index
  EPS expandable polystyrene
  EQC external quality control
  EQT environmental quality target
  ERL extraneous residue limit
  EROD 7-ethoxyresurofin-o-deethylase
  ESCA electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
  ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate
  ESRD end-stage renal disease
  ETA electrothermal atomization
  ETD ethylene bisthiuram disulfide
  ETG epidermal transglutaminase
  ETU ethylenethiourea
  ETV electrothermal vaporization
  EU ethyleneurea
  F_0 parental generation
  F_1 filial generation, first
  F_2 filial generation, second
  FAA flameless atomic absorption
  FACS fluorescence activated cell sorter
  FAD flavin adenine dinucleotide
  FCAT Freund's complete adjuvant test
  f.c. Field capacity
  FD fluorescence detection
  FDA Food and Drug Administration (USA)
  FEF forced expiratory flow
  FEP free erythrocyte porphyrin
  FEV forced expiratory volume
  fg femtogram (10^-15 g)
  FI flame ionization
  FID flame ionization detector
  FMLP formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine
  FMN flavin mononucleotide
  FOB functional observational battery
  FPD flame photometric detector
  FR flame retardant
  FS fluorescence spectrophotometry
  FSC Food Safety Council (USA)
  FSD flame photometric detector selective for sulfur
  FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
  FTIR Fourier transform infrared
  FVC forced vital capacity
  GA gibberillic acid
  GABA gamma-aminobutyric acid
  GAG glycosaminoglycan
  GALT gut-associated lymphoid tissue
  GAP good agricultural practice
  GBM glomerular basement membrane
  GC gas chromatography
  GC-ECD gas chromatography with electron capture detector
  GDH glutamate dehydrogenase
  GDMS glow discharge mass spectrometry
  GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System
  GESAMP Group of Experts for the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
  GFAAS graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry
  GFR glomerular filtration rate
  GGT gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase
  GH growth hormone
  GI gastrointestinal
  GIFAP International Group of National Association of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products
(French Acronym for: Groupement International des Associations Nationales de Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques)
  GLC gas-liquid chromatography
  GLDH glutamate dehydrogenase
  GLP good laboratory practice
  cGMP cyclic guanosine monophosphate
  GOT glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase
  GPC gel permeation chromatography
  GPMT guinea-pig maximization test
  GPT glutamic-pyruvic transaminase
  GS glutamine synthetase
  GSH glutathione-SH
  GST glutathione-S-transferase
  GTB glomerular tubular balance
  GV guidance value
  GWP global-warming potential
  h hour(s)
  ha hectare
  Hb haemoglobin
  HBCD hexabromocyclododecane
  HBDH hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase
  H & E haematoxolin and eosin
  HCB hexachlorobenzene
  HCBD hexachloro-1,3-butadiene
  HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbon
  HCFH-22 chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF_2 )
  HCG human chorionic gonadotropin
  HCH hexachlorocyclohexane
  HDL high density lipoprotein
  HDPE high density polyethylene
  HEAL Human Exposure Assessment Location
  HECD Hall electron capture detector
  HEV high endothelial venule
  HEX hexachlorocyclopentadiene
  HGPRT hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase
  HIPS high impact polystyrene
  HIV human immunodeficiency virus
  HLB hydrophilic-lipophilic balance
  HLV hygienic limit value
  hnRNA heterogeneous nuclear RNA
  HPCA human progenitor cell antigen
  HPI cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboximide
  HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography
  HPTLC high-performance thin-layer chromatography
  HQ hydroquinone
  HS headspace
  HSA heat-stable antigen; human serum albumin
  HSG Health and Safety Guide
  IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
  IC ion chromatography
  ICAM intercellular adhesion molecule
  IC_50 median inhibitory concentration
  ICD International Classification of Diseases
  ICG indocyanine green
  ICP inductively coupled plasma
  ICST isolated cold stress testing
  i.d. internal diameter
  IDMS isotope dilution mass spectrometry
  IFN interferon
  Ig immunoglobulin
  IL interleukin
  ILO International Labour Organisation
  ILSI International Life Science Institute
  im intramuscular
  ip intraperitoneal
  IPA isopropylamine
  IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
  IQ intelligence quotient
  IQC internal quality control
  IR infrared
  IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
  ISO International Organization for Standardization
  IT isomeric transition
  IU international unit
  IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
  iv intravenous
  JECFA Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives
  JMPR Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues
  kcal kilocalorie(s)
  keV kiloelectronvolt(s)
  K_ow octanol/water partition coefficient
  LAP leucine aminopeptidase
  LAQL lowest analytically quantifiable level
  LC liquid chromatography
  LC_50 median lethal concentration
  LD_01 lethal dose for 1%
  LD_50 median lethal dose
  LDH lactate dehydrogenase
  LDL low density lipoprotein
  LDPE low density polyethylene
  LDQ lowest detectable quantity
  LEI lifetime exposure intensity
  LEV local exhaust ventilation
  Lf limit flocculation
  LFA lymphocyte function-related antigen
  LFP lavage fluid protein
  LH luteinizing hormone
  LI labelling index
  LIF laser-induced fluorescence; leukaemia inhibitory factor
  LLD lowest lethal dose
  LMS linear multistage model
  LMW low molecular weight
  LOAEL lowest-observed-adverse-effect level
  LOD limit of determination
  LOEL lowest-observed-effect level
  LRNI lower reference nutrient intake (UK)
  LSC liquid scintillation counter
  LT_50 median lethal time
  LTP long-term potentiation
  MAA methoxyacetic acid
  MAC maximum allowable concentration
  MAD maximum allowable deviation
  MAFF Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan)
  MAK maximum workplace concentration (Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentration)
  MALT mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
  MAM methylazoxymethanol
  MAP mutagenic activity profile
  MAOI monoamine oxidase inhibitor
  MARC Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre (UK)
  MARE monoclonal anti-rat immunoglobulin E
  MAS molecular absorption spectrometry
  MAT mean absorption time
  MATC maximum acceptable toxicant concentration
  MBC minimum bactericidal concentration
  MBDE mass balance differential equation
  MBK methyl n-butyl ketone
  MBP monobutyl phthalate
  MBT monobutyltin
  MC methyl chloroform
  3-MC 3-methylcholanthrene
  MCD microcoulometric detection
  MCH mean cell haemoglobin
  MCHC mean cell haemoglobin concentration
  mCi millicurie
  MCL melanotic cell lines
  MCPA 4-chloro-o-tolyoxyacetic acid
  MCV mean cell volume
  MDA malondialdehyde
  MDI methylene-diphenyl diisocyanate
  MDMA methylenedioxymethamphetamine
  2-ME 2-methoxyethanol
  2-MEA 2-methoxyethyl acetate
  MeB_12 methylcobalamin
  MED minimum effective dose; minimal erythemal dose
  MEHP monoethylhexyl phthalate
  MEK methyl ethyl ketone
  mEq milliequivalent
  MeV megaelectronvolt(s)
  MFO mixed-function oxidase
  MHC major histocompatibility complex
  MHW Ministry of Health and Welfare (Japan)
  MIBK methyl isobutyl ketone
  MIC minimal inhibitory concentration
  MIT methylisothiocyanate; monoiodotyrosine
  MLD minimum lethal dose
  MLR mixed lymphocyte response assay
  MLSS mixed liquor suspended solids
  MMA methoxyacetic acid
  MMAD mass median aerodynamic diameter
  MMH monomethylhydrazine
  mmHg millimetre(s) of mercury
  MMMF man-made mineral fibre
  MNNG N-methyl-N -nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine
  MNU N-methyl-N-nitrosurea
  mPa millipascal (7.5 x 10^-6 mmHg)
  MPC maximum permissible limit
  MQL minimum quantifiable limit
  MRBIS mean running bias index score
  MRL maximum residue limit
  mRNA messenger RNA
  MRVIS Mean Running Variance Index Score
  MS mass spectrometry
  MSD mass selective detection
  MSW municipal solid waste
  MTBE methyl tertiary butyl ether
  MTC maximum tolerable or acceptable concentration
  MTD maximum tolerated dose
  MTE mild toxic encephalopathy
  MTI N-(hydroxymethyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalamide


  NAA neutron activation analysis
  NAC N-acetyl cysteine
  NAD nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
  NADP nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
  NADPH reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
  NBU N-nitrosobutylurea
  NCAM neural cell adhesion molecule
  NCI National Cancer Institute (USA); negative ion chemical ionization
  NCV nerve conduction velocity
  ND not detectable
  NDDC sodium diethyldithiocarbamate
  NDMA nitrosodimethylamine
  NDMC sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate
  NEQUAS National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UK)
  NFT neurofibrillary tangle
  ng nanogram (10^-9 g)
  NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (USA)
  NK natural killer
  nm nanometer
  NMCL nonmelanolic cell lines
  NMN N-methylnicotinamide
  NMOR N-nitrosomorpholine
  NMR nuclear magnetic resonance
  NNM N-nitrosomorpholine
  NO nitrogen oxide
  NOAEL no-observed-adverse-effect level
  NOEC no-observed-effect concentration
  NOEL no-observed-effect level
  NOLC no-observed lethal concentration
  NPD nitrogen-phosphorus sensitive detector
  NPSH non-protein sulfhydryl
  NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  NSD nitrogen selective detector
  NTA nitrilotriacetic acid
  NTE neuropathy target esterase
  NTEL no-toxic-effect level
  NTP National Toxicology Program (USA)
  OCT ornithine carbamoyltransferase
  ODC ornithine decarboxylase
  ODP ozone-depletion potential
  OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
  OEL occupational exposure limit
  OER oxygen enhancement ratio
  OES occupational exposure standard; optical emission spectrometry
  OET open epicutaneous test
  OP organophosphate
  OPIDN organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy
  OR odds ratio
  OSC oil-enhanced suspension concentrate
  OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration (USA)
  OVA ovalbumin
  OZT oxazolidinethione
  PA polyamides
  PAA photon activation analysis
  2-PAM chloride pralidoxine (2-pyridine aldoxime methyl) chloride
  PAH p-aminohippurate; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
  PALS periarteriolar lymphocyte sheath
  PAN peroxyacetyl nitrate; polyacrylonitrile
  PAS periodic acid Schiff stain
  PB phenobarbital
  PBA phenoxybenzoic acid
  PBalc 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol
  PBald 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde
  PBB polybrominated biphenyl
  PBDD polybrominated dibenzodioxin
  PBDE polybrominated diphenyl ether
  PBDF polybrominated dibenzofuran
  PBI protein-bound iodine
  PBPK physiologically based pharmacokinetics
  PBT polybutylene terephthalate
  PCBD S-(1,2,3,4,4-pentachloro-1,3-butadienyl)
  PCDD polychlorinated dibenzodioxin
  PCDF polychlorinated dibenzofuran
  PCA para-chloroaniline (4-chloroaniline); passive cutaneous anaphylaxis
  PCB polychlorinated biphenyl
  PCBD S-(1,2,3,4,4-pentachloro-1,3-butadienyl)
  PCDD polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin
  PCDF polychlorinated dibenzofuran
  PCDPE polychlorinated diphenylether
  PCE polychromatic erythrocytes
  PCOM phase contrast optical microscopy
  PCPY polychlorinated pyrene
  PCQ polychlorinated quaterphenyl
  PCT porphyria cutanea tarda
  PCV packed-cell volume
  PD plasma desorption
  PDG phosphate-dependent glutaminase
  PE polyethylene
  PEF peak expiratory flow
  PEG pneumoencephalography
  PEL permissible exposure limit
  PET polyethylene terephthalate
  PFC plaque-forming cell
  pg picogram (10^-12 g)
  PG prostaglandin
  pH the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
  PHF paired helical filaments
  PHS prostaglandin-H-synthetase
  PIB piperonyl butoxide
  PIC picrotoxin
  PID photo-ionization detection
  PIXE proton-induced X-ray emission
  pKa the negative logarithm of the dissociation constant
  PMBA p-methylbenzyl alcohol
  PMN polymorphonuclear leukocyte
  PMTDI provisional maximum tolerable daily intake
  PMR proportional mortality rate
  PMSG pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin
  PNS peripheral nervous system
  pO2 plasma partial pressure (concentration) of oxygen
  POCP photochemical ozone-creation potential
  PoG proteoglycan
  POS psycho-organic syndrome
  PP polypropylene
  ppb parts per billion
  ppm parts per million
  ppt parts per trillion
  PSD passive sampling device
  PSPS Pesticides Safety Precautions Scheme (United Kingdom)
  PT prothrombin time
  PTH parathyroid hormone
  PTT partial thromboplastin time
  PTU propylenethiourea
  PTWI provisional tolerable weekly intake
  PTZ pentylenetetrazole
  PVC polyvinyl chloride
  PYR pyrene
  QA quality assurance
  QAP quality assurance programme
  QC quality control
  QSAR quantitative structure-activity relationship
  RACB reproductive assessment by continuous breeding
  RAST radioallergosorbent test
  RBC red blood cell
  RBP retinal binding protein
  RDA recommended dietary allowance (USA)
  REL recommended exposure limit
  RER rough endoplasmic reticulum
  RIA radio-immuno assay
  RIPT repeat insult patch test
  RMA reflex modification audiometry
  RNA ribonucleic acid
  RNI reference nutrient intake (UK)
  ROC reactive organic carbon
  RPN renal papillary necrosis
  RR relative risk
  RTECS Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances
  RUBISCO ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase
  S9 9000 x g supernatant
  SAM S-adenosylmethionine
  SAP serum alkaline phosphatase
  SAR structure-activity relationship
  sc subcutaneous
  SC suspension concentrate
  SCE sister chromatid exchange
  SCF stem-cell factor
  SCID severe combined immunodeficiency
  SCOPE Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment of the International Council of Scientific Unions
  SD standard deviation
  SDAT senile dementia of Alzheimer type
  SE standard error
  SEM standard error of the mean; scanning electron microscopy
  SER smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  SFC supercritical fluid chromatography
  SFS subjective facial sensation
  SGOMSEC Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals
  SGOT serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase
  SGPT serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase
  SHE Syrian Hamster embryo
  SIM selected ion monitoring
  SIMS secondary ion mass spectrometry
  SLE systemic lupus erythematosus
  SMA sequential multiple analyser
  SMR standardized mortality ratio
  SOP standard operating procedure
  SPF specific pathogen free
  SPM suspended particulate matter
  S-PMA S-phenyl-mercapturic acid
  SRT simple reaction time
  SSB single strand breaks
  STEL short-term exposure limit
  t_3 triiodothyronine
  t_4 thyroxine
  2,4,5-T 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid
  TADI temporary acceptable daily intake
  TAN tropical ataxic neuropathy
  TAP trialkyl/aryl phosphate
  TBBPA tetrabromobisphenol A
  TBG thyroxine-binding globulin
  TBP tributyl phosphate
  TBPP tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate
  TBT tributyltin
  TBTO tributyltin oxide
  TCA tricarboxylic acid cycle
  TCD thermal conductivity detection
  TCDD 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin
  TCDF 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzofuran
  TCE 1,1,1-trichloroethylene
  TCP trichlorophenol; tricresyl phosphate
  TCPP tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate
  TCR T-cell receptor
  TDC thermal conductivity detection
  TDI tolerable daily intake; toluene diisocyanate
  TDLAS tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometry
  TEA tetraethyl ammonium; thermal energy analyser
  TEAC tetraethylammonium chloride
  TEAM total exposure assessment methodology
  TEF toxicity equivalency factor
  TEPP tetraethyl-pyrophosphate
  TGA thermogravimetric analysis
  TH thyroid hormone
  THF tetrahydrofolate
  TI tolerable intake
  TLC thin-layer chromatography
  TLV threshold limit value
  TMCP tri-meta-cresyl phosphate
  TMDI theoretical maximum daily intake
  TML tetramethyllead
  TMRL temporary maximum residue limit
  TMT trimethyltin
  TNF tumour necrosis factor
  TOCP tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate
  TOD total oxygen demand
  TPA 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate
  TPCP tri-para-cresyl phosphate
  TPI 3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalimide
  TPIA 3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalic acid
  TPN total parenteral nutrition
  TPO thyroid peroxidase
  TPP triphenyl phosphate
  TPTA triphenyltin acetate
  TPTH triphenyltin hydroxide
  tRNA transfer ribonucleic acid
  TRP tubular reabsorption of phosphate
  TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)
  TSP total suspended particulate
  TST temperature sensitivity
  TT toxicity threshold
  TWA time-weighted average
  UCM urographic contrast medium
  UCL upper confidence limit
  UDP uridine diphosphate
  UDPGA UDP-glucuronic acid
  UDPGT UDP-glucuronosyltransferase
  UDS unscheduled DNA synthesis
  UF uncertainty factor
  ULV ultra-low volume
  UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
  UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
  US ATSDR US Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry
  UV ultraviolet
  UVB ultraviolet B
  VC vinyl chloride
  VCAM vascular cell adhesion molecule
  VER visual evoked response
  VHH volatile halogenated hydrocarbon
  VLA very late antigen
  VLDL very low-density lipoproteins
  VOC volatile organic carbon compound
  VSD virtually safe dose
  VTR vibration threshold
  v/v volume per volume
  WAIS Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale
  WBC white blood cell
  WG water-dispersible granule
  WHO World Health Organization
  WISN warfarin-induced skin necrosis
  WP wettable powder
  w/v weight per volume
  XRF X-ray-generated atomic fluorescence
  XRFS X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy


  ZPP zinc protoporphyrin