Martindale�s 24th
Compiled and Edited by Ivor Hughes

Starch (B.P.). Amylum; Amidon; St�rke; Almidiόn.
Polysaccharide granules obtained from maize, Zea mays, rice, Oryza sativa, wheat, Triticum ǽstivum, and other species of Triticum, or potato, Solanum tuberosum. Maize starch is also known as corn starch.

Foreign Pharmacopoeias : Some or all of these starches are included in all the pharmacopoeias examined. U.S. specifies Corn Starch (maize starch) only. Jap. P. includes monographs on Pueraria Starch from, the root of Pueraria hirsuta (Leguminosa;), and Sweet Potato Starch from the tuberous root of Ipomoea batatas (Convolvulaceae).

A fine, white, odourless, tasteless powder, or irregular angular masses. Insoluble in cold water, and alcohol. Soluble starch is prepared from potato or maize starch by treatment with dilute hydrochloric acid; it is readily soluble in hot water, forming a transparent, mobile liquid. Store in a cool, dry place.

STERILISATION (for use as surgical glove powder). Place in small packets and sterilise with dressings, or heat in shallow trays in a hot-air oven at 160�.� per Pharm. J., i/1955, 52.

Uses. Starch is absorbent and is widely used in dusting-powders, either alone or mixed with zinc oxide, boric acid or other similar substances. In the form of Glycerin of Starch or Mucilage of Starch it is employed as an emollient application to the skin. The mucilage also forms the basis of some enemas and is an antidote in the treatment of iodine poisoning. Starch is incorporated in some tablets as a disintegrating agent.


Absorbable Dusting Powder (U.S.P.)
. Starch-derivative Dusting Powder. A white odourless absorbable powder prepared by processing maize starch. It contains not more than 2% of magnesium oxide. It may be prepared by treating starch with epichlorohydrin which renders the starch granules resistant to autoclaving without affecting either tissue tolerance or absorbability of the starch. The addition of magnesium oxide helps to keep it in the form of a fine powder and increases its lubricating properties. It is used as a lubricant for surgeons' gloves.

METHOD OF PREPARATION. A starch ester to replace talc as a dusting-powder is prepared by treating 100 g. of maize starch with 5 g. of potassium hydroxide in 20 g. of dehydrated alcohol, followed by 5 g. of epichlorohydrin in 10 g. of dehydrated alcohol. The mixture is warmed to 40� and allowed to dry for 2 hours. The treatment is repeated, alkali is removed by washing with water and the residue dried at 40�, and 2% of magnesium oxide is added.�M. Anderson and V. Wűrtzen, Dansk. Tidsskr. Farm., 1953, 27, 25, per /. Pharm. Pharmacol ., 1953,5, 391.

Amylum Camphoratum (F.N, Belg.). Camphorated Starch. Camphor 10 and starch 90.

Amylum Solubile (Dan. P.). Soluble Starch. A glistening white, odourless, tasteless powder, prepared by mixing potato starch with an equal quantity of dilute hydrochloric acid, allowing the mixture to stand for 20 hours at 30� with frequent shaking, washing with water, and drying the product at room temperature. It dissolves in boiling water, forming a neutral solution.


Calaplasma Amyli (B.P.C. 1934). Starch Poultice, Starch 10% boiled with water. One of the safest remedies to apply to an inflamed, weeping or crusted surface, and patients with infantile eczema may often be completely cured by its continued use alone.� J. E. M. Wigley, Practitioner, 1935, 135, 352. In the treatment of certain skin conditions, e.g. impetigo, starch poultice prepared as follows is of value. Four tablespoonfuls of rice or maize starch powder and one teaspoonful of boric-acid powder are mixed, and 1 pint of boiling water added, with stirring. The poultices are applied between muslin, and renewed every 4 hours. Where there is sepsis, proflavine 5 gr. may be substituted for the boric acid.�J. F. Smith, Practitioner, 1944, 132, 297.

Glycerin of Starch (B.P., Ind. P.). Glycerinum Amyli. A translucent jelly prepared by heating wheat starch 8.5 with water 17 and glycerin 74.5, all by wt. It should be freshly prepared. A similar preparation is included in many foreign pharmacopoeias, sometimes with the title Unguentum Glycerini. the amount of starch varying between 7 and 10%; a suitable preservative, such as methyl hydroxy-benzoate, is sometimes included.

Glyceritum Amyli (Fr. P.). Glycere d'Amidon. Wheat starch 1, water 1, glycerin 13, all by wt. This is used as the basis for a number of Glycerita in Fr. P.

Mucilage of Starch (B.P.C.). Mucilago Amyli. Starch '/� �z., triturated with water 2 oz., added to boiling water 8 oz-. and again raised to boiling.

Pyruvic Acid Starch Paste (New York Hosp.). Pyruvic acid 0-7 ml., starch 10 g., water to 100 ml. Prepared by hydrolysing the starch with boiling water containing the pyruvic acid. The product must have a greyish-white opaque appearance. For hastening the removal of foreign matter and dead tissue in deep bums and wounds. The paste should be applied on gauze in a thick layer over the entire wound, and the gauze covered with a dressing, such as paraffin gauze, which is impermeable to moisture and air. It should be freshly prepared, or may be stored for a few days in a tightly closed container in a refrigerator. Paste which has separated should not be used.

Starch Glycerite (U.S.P.). Maize starch 10 g., water 20 ml,, glycerin 70 ml., benzoic acid 200 mg., heated at 140" to 144�. It should be recently prepared.

Arrowroot (B.P.C.). Maranta; Amylum Marantae.
Foreign Pharmacopeias: In Dan., Nor., and Swiss.
The starch granules of the rhizomes of Maranta arundinacea (Marantaceae). A white odourless tasteless powder. One tablespoonful to a pint of hot water produces a demulcent mucilage. Store in a cool dry place.

Orris (U.S.N.F., B.P.C. 1949). Iridis Rhizoma; Orris Rhizome; Orris Root; Iris; Iris Florentine; Veilchenwurzel.
Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Belg., Ger., Jan., and Swiss.

The peeled and dried rhizome of Iris germanica, I. pallida and I. florentina (Iridaceae). It has a fragrant violet-like odour and a slightly aromatic and bitter somewhat irritating taste.

Uses. It is used as an ingredient of toilet powders and tooth pastes but may cause allergic reactions in hypersensitive persons. Volatile oil of orris, blended with ionone, is used as a basis for violet perfumes.

Lycopodium (U.S.N.F., B.P.C. 1949). Lycopodii Spora; Vegetable Sulphur; B�rlappsporen.
Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Belg., Chil., Cz., Dan,, Egyp., Ger,, Jap., Jug,, Nor., Pol., Span., Swed., and Swiss.

The spores of the clubmoss, Lycopidium clavatum (Lycopodiaceae). A pale yellow, very mobile, light powder.

Uses. Lycopodium is used as a dusting-powder for the skin, as a diluent for insufflations for the throat, nose and ear, and as the basis for medicated snuffs. It is also employed in dispensing as a covering for pills.

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22 Nov 06