The Spirits of the USD 21st Edition 1926.
When one reads the formula monograph for each
of the spirits listed. If the monograph uses word 'Alcohol' in the
preparation instructions. That should be taken to mean the rectified
90 percent v/v alcohol specified by the pharmacopoeia. There are some
very good reasons for that.
Brandy and Whiskey are esteemed as beverages around the world. The
whiskey is a grain spirit. The Brandy is grape spirit. The difference in
odour, taste and physiological effect is marked.
Different brands differ widely in taste and smoothness etc. Sometimes
because the product may be blended or tampered with to make it acceptable,
or of insufficient age. However of great importance is from
where was the grain or grapes harvested, and in
The chemistry of the soil changes from district to district, as does the
composition of the water in terms of the mineral and metal salts that it
contains. In the Cosmetic and Medical sense, the whiskey and the
brandy monographs are interesting, because they show some of the many
impurities that the respective alcohols contain. Each of the constituents in
the beverages are chemical entities in their own right and each will produce
a physiological reaction. To complicate matters, the nature and
structure of the constituents are constantly changing with age. It may
be readily seen that the number of variables involved in preparing a lotion
or potion, render it almost impossible to predict an outcome.
Therefore such beverage alcohols must be rectified to fit them for the
purpose for which they are to be used.
Alcoolats. Fr.; Geiste, G.;
Spirito, It.; Espiritu, Solucion Alooholica,
Spirits, as the term is here used, are
alcoholic solutions of volatile principles formerly procured by
distillation, but now frequently prepared by simply dissolving the
volatile substance or substances in alcohol. The spirits as a rule are
prepared by simple solution of the active substance in alcohol. A few are
prepared by distillation as Spiritus Frumenti
and Spiritus vim Vitis. Some are
therapeutic agents of value, others are employed merely as flavoring agents.
These latter are sometimes confused with the "flavoring extracts " or
" essences " used in culinary practice, but as a rule the official
spirits are much stronger than the flavoring extracts of the same
name, and in some cases, notably Spiritus Amygdalae contain
constituents which are not suitable for use in food products.
SPIRITUS ANISI. U. S., Br. SPIRIT OF ANISE.
Oil of Anise, 100 cc. ;
Alcohol, a sufficient quantity to make 1000 cc. Mix the oil with
sufficient alcohol to make the product measure 1000 cc. Alcohol
content, by volume, 80 to 87 per cent." US. Oil of Anise, 100
millilitres Alcohol (90 per cent.), sufficient to produce 1000 millilitres.
Dissolve. When not clear, shake with a little powdered talc and filter." Br.
Dose, as a stomachic and
carminative, from twenty to sixty minims (1.3 - 3.75 cc.),properly
SPIRITUS ARMORAClAE COMPOSITUS. Br. COMPOUND
SPIRIT OF HORSERADISH.
Esprit de Raifort composee. Alcoolat antiscorbutique. Fr.,
Zusammengesetzter Meerrettiggeist, G..
Horseradish :Root, scraped, 125 grammes. Dried Bitter-Orange Peel,
bruised, 125 gram.mes; Nutmeg, bruised, 3 grammes; Alcohol (90 per
cent.), 625 millilitres; Distilled Water, 750 millilitres. Macerate
the Horseradish Root in the Distilled Water for one hour, add the
other ingredients, and distil one thousand millilitres, Specific gravity
0.917 to 0.927." Br.
This may be used advantageously as an addition to diuretic remedies,
in dropsy attended with debility, especially in the case of drunkards
Dose, from one to four fluidrachms
(3.75 - 15cc.).
SPIRITUS AURANTII COMPO SITUS. U. S. COMPOUND
SPIRIT OF ORANGE. Sp. Aur. Co.
Teinture d'essence d'orange, Esprit d'orangecomposee,
Zusammengesetzter Orangegeist, G. Oil of Orange, 200 cc. ; Oil of Lemon, 50
cc. ; Oil of Coriander, 20 cc. ; Oil of Anise, 5 00. ; Alcohol, a
sufficient quantity to make 1000 cc. Mix the oils with sufficient alcohol to
make the product measure 1000 cc.
Preserve in dark amber-colored bottles. " Alcohol content, by volume, 65
to 70 per cent." U. S.
This compound spirit has been introduced for the purpose of producing the
orange flavor in making the official aromatic elixir, and in various N. F.
elixirs. It will be found by physicians to be a useful and fragrant addition
Off. Prep. Elixir Aromaticum, U. S.
SPIRITUS CAJUPUTI. Br. SPIR.IT OF CAJUPUT
Teintured'essence de Cajeput, Alcoole d'essence de Cajeput, Fr. :
Cajeputgeist, G. Oil of Cajuput, 100 millilitres; Alcohol (90 per
cent.), sufficient to produce 1000 millilitres. Dissolve. When not
clear, shake with a little powdered talc and filter ." Br
For an account of the medicinal properties and uses of oil of cajuput, of
which this is simply an alcoholic solution, see Oleum Cajuputi.
Dose, from five to twenty minims
(0.3-1.3 cc.), properly diluted.
SPIRITUS CAMPHORAE. U. S., Br. SPIR.IT OF CAMPHOR. Sp. Camph.
Spirit of Camphor contains not less than 9.5 Gm. and not more than
10.5 Gm. of camphor in each 100 cc. US.
Tinctura Camphorae, US. 1850; Tincture of Camphor;
Camphor, 100 Gm. ; Alcohol, a
sufficient quantity, to make 1000 cc. Dissolve the camphor in about 800 cc.
of alcohol and add enough alcohol to make the product measure 1000 cc.
Filter if necessary." U.S.
" Camphor, 100 grammes Alcohol (90 per cent.) , sufficient to produce
1000 millilitres. Dissolve. specific gravity, 0.845 to 0.850.
SPIRITUS CINNAMOMI. U.S. Br. SPIRIT OF
CINNAMON Sp. Cinnam.
Oil of Cinnamon, 100 cc. ; Alcohol, a sufficient quantity to make 1000
cc. Mix the oil with sufficient alcohol to make the product measure 1000 cc.
Alcohol content, by volume, 80 to 87 per cent. US.
Oil of Cinnamon, 100 millilitres Alcohol (90 per cent.), sufficient to
produce 1000 millilitres. Dissolve. When not clear, shake with a little
powdered talc and filter." Br. The spirit of cinnamon is an agreeable
Dose, from ten to thirty
minims (0.6-1.8 cc.) in water.
SPIRITUS FRUMENTI. U.S. : WHISKY : Sp. Frum.
Whisky is an alcoholic liquid obtained by the distillation of the
fermented mash of wholly or partly malted cereal grains, and
containing not less than 47 percent. and not more than 53 percent. by volume
of CaH6OH, at 15.56� C. It must have been stored in charred wood containers
for a period of not less than four years. US.
The term " whisky " is a corruption of the Gaelic " usquebaugh " or
more correctly '.uisgebeatha, " which signifies " water of life" and
is said to have been first applied to the spirit obtained from barley
in the Highlands of Scotland. As at present understood and as officially
defined, whisky is the distilled spirit from the mash of various grains,
including maize, wheat, rye and barley.
In the United States it is generally made from corn or rye. The term is
occasionally extended to other forms of ardent spirit; that resulting from
the distillation of cider is frequently although incorrectly
designated as " apple whisky."
In the preparation of whisky, the. infusion of partially germinated grain
(see Maltum), which is known as " mash," is made to ferment by the addition
of yeast. This is submitted to distillation, the resulting product
being denominated " low wine." By a second distillation it becomes
purer and stronger and is known as raw spirit or raw whisky.
When stored in wooden vessels it undergoes slow oxidation losing the
disagreeable odor and taste which it is apt to have when first distilled. It
is generally believed that these changes involve the conversion of the
aldehydic constituents of raw spirit into acids which unite with the
higher alcohols of the fusel oil (see
Alcohol, Part II) to form esters, the latter giving the
improved taste and mellowness to aged whisky. The oxidation of the aldehydic
constituents may be accomplished more rapidly by percolating the whisky
through wood shavings. The peculiar flavor of Scotch whisky is due to
the presence of small amounts of creosote and other constituents of
smoke derived from the use of kiln-dried malt which has absorbed
When freshly distilled, whisky is colorless, but when stored in charred
wooden casks it acquires its characteristic color from the carmelized ' wood
gum " of the barrel. During storage there is an increase in acidity, a
loss of amyl alcohol and apparently a slight increase in the amount of
furfural. There are volatile principles naturally existing in the
grains which are carried over in the successive distillations and give
their characteristic flavor to the resulting spirit. These can
scarcely be considered as impurities but there are others produced
during the process of fermentation which seriously contaminate the
product. Among these is the mixture known as fusel oil which is offensive
both to smell and to taste.
Minute proportions of acetic and butyric acids are often present in
whisky and valeric acid has been reported. A spurious or imitation ,whisky
is often made by the addition of caramel or other coloring matter to
alcohol and the addition of some genuine whisky to impart a
characteristic flavor. This has led to considerable argument as to the
definition of whisky, a question which can not be considered as
entirely settled even at the present time although the question is not
now as important as it was some years ago when the sale of whisky was
only regulated by licensing provisions of the laws.
What is a straight whisky, what is a blended whisky and what is an
imitation whisky are the three fundamental questions. There is little
argument over the first and the third of these questions. It is the
second one upon which there is disagreement.
whisky is whisky which has been aged in wood for
a sufficient length of time to ensure the changes by which the congeners of
the alcoholic distillate are altered in a manner which produces the
characteristic odor and taste distinctive of whisky, coloring matter
from the charred oak barrels being at the same time taken up.
Imitation whisky. is an alcoholic liquid of approximately the
same proof strength as whisky and colored and flavored in imitation of
Blended whisky according to the original interpretation of Dr. H. W.
Wiley, then head of the Bureau of Chemistry, is a mixture of straight
whiskies of different types and varying degrees of maturity. This
position was reversed by the U. S. Dept. of .Agriculture officials in
1907 and the reversal. was upheld by a decision of President Taft who
acted as arbiter in the matter.
The text of President Taft's decision; given Feb. 16, 1910, is as
follows: " The term , straight whisky' is well understood in the trade and
well understood by consumers. There is no .reason, therefore, why
those who make straight whisky may not have the brand upon their
barrels of straight whisky with further descriptive terms as 'Bourbon'
or 'Rye' whisky, as the composition of the grain used may justify, and
they may properly add, if they choose, that it is aged in the wood.
Those who make whisky of' rectified,' , redistilled,' or' neutral ,
spirits cannot complain if, in order to prevent frauds, they are
required to use a brand which shall show exactly the kind of whisky they are
selling. For that reason it seems to me fair to require them to brand their
product as' whisky made from rectified spirits,' or' whisky made from
redistilled spirits,' or' whisky made from neutral spirits,' as the case may
be; and if aged in the wood, as sometimes is the case with this class
of whiskies, they may add this fact. A great deal of the liquor sold
is a mixture of straight whisky with whisky made from neutral spirits.
Now, the question is whether this ought to be regarded as a compound
or a blend.
The Pure Food Law provides that' in the case of articles labelled,
branded, or tagged so as to plainly indicate that they are compounds,
imitations, or blends,' the term' blend' shall be construed to mean a
mixture of like substances, not excluding harmless coloring or
flavoring ingredients used for the purpose of coloring and flavoring
only. It seems to me that straight whisky and whisky made from neutral
spirits, each with more than 99.5 percent. ethyl alcohol and water,
and with less than half of one per cent. of fusel oil, are clearly a
mixture of like substances, and that while the latter may have and
often does have burnt sugar or caramel to flavor and color it, such coloring
and flavoring ingredients may be regarded as for flavoring and
coloring only, because the use of burnt sugar to color and flavor
spirits as whisky is much older than the coloring and flavoring by the
tannin of the charred bark.
Therefore, where straight whisky and whisky made from neutral spirits
are mixed, it is proper to call them a blend of straight whisky and
whisky made from neutral spirits. This is also in accord with the decision
of the British Royal Commission in the case which I have cited upon a
similar issue. Neutral spirits made from molasses and reduced to
potable strength has sometimes been called whisky, but not for a
sufficient length of time or under circumstances justifying the
conclusion that it is a proper trade name. The distillate from
molasses used for drinking has commonly been known as rum. The use of
whisky for it is a misbranding."
The following standards were then adopted by the Joint Standards
Committee of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, and
the American Society of National Food and Dairy Officials:
New whisky is the
properly distilled spirit from the properly prepared and properly fermented
mash of malted grain, or of grain the starch of which has been
hydrolyzed by malt; it has an alcoholic strength corresponding to the
excise laws of the various countries in which it is produced, and
contains in 100 liters of proof spirit not less than 100 grammes of
the various substances other than ethyl alcohol derived from the grain
from which it is made, and of those produced during fermentation, the
principal part of which consists of higher alcohols estimated as
Whisky (potable whisky) is new whisky
which has been stored in wood not less than four years without any
artificial heat save that which may be im- parted by warming the
storehouse to the usual temperature, and contains in 100 liters of
proof spirit not less than 200 grammes of the substances found in new
whisky, save as they are changed or eliminated by storage, and of those
produced as secondary bodies during aging; and in addition thereto,
the substances and of those produced as secondary bodies during aging;
and, in addition thereto, the substances extracted from the casks in
which it has been stored. It contains, when prepared for consumption
as permitted by the regulations of the Bureau of Internal Revenue, not
less than 45 per cent. by volume of ethyl alcohol, and, if no
statement is made concerning its alcoholic strength, it contains not less
than 50 per cent of ethyl alcohol by volume, as prescribed by law.
Rye whisky is a whisky in
the manufacture of which rye, either in a malted condition or with
sufficient barley or rye malt to hydrolyze the starch, is the only.
Bourbon whisky is a whisky made
in Kentucky from a mash of Indian corn and rye, and barley malt, of
which Indian corn forms more than 50 per cent.
Corn whisky is whisky made
from malted Indian corn or of Indian corn the starch of which has been
hydrolyzed by barley malt.
Blended whisky is a mixture of
two or more whiskys.
Scotch Whisky is
whisky made in Scotland solely from barley malt, in the
drying of which peat has been used. It contains in 100 liters of proof
spirit not less than 150 grammes of the various substances pre-
scribed for whisky exclusive of those extracted from the cask.
made in Ireland, and conforms in the proportions of its various
ingredients to Scotch whisky, save that it may be made of the same
materials as prescribed for whisky, and the malt used is not dried
over peat. Neutral spirit is a grain distillate, of a high degree of
purity and known as " silent spirit " on account of the ease with
which it may be used as a blending ingredient without the production of a
harsh and disagreeable odor.
Description and Physical Properties.
A light to deep amber-colored liquid, having a characteristic odor and
taste, and an acid reaction.
Specific gravity: from 0,935 to
0.923 at 25� C.
The residue obtained by evaporating 20 cc. of Whisky in a dish on a
water bath is not completely soluble in 5 cc. of distilled water.
Filter the solution and add to the filtrate a drop of diluted ferric
chloride T.S. (1 in 10) : a greenish-black coloration is produced (
indicating storage in wood barrels) .A 25 cc. portion of Whisky,
diluted with 50 cc. of distilled water, requires for neutralization
not less than 1.5 cc. and not more than 5 cc. of tenth-normal sodium
hydroxide, using 3 drops of phenolphthalein T.S. as indicator. Mix 100
cc. of Whisky with 15 cc. of distilled water and slowly distil l00
cc., using an efficient condenser.
Neutralize 50 cc. of the distillate with tenth-normal sodium hydroxide,
using 5 drops of phenolphthalein T .S. as indicator, then add exactly
20 cc. more of the tenth-normal sodium hydroxide and boil for one hour
under a reflux condenser. Cool and titrate the excess of alkali with
tenth-normal sulphuric acid. Run a blank test, using distilled water
in place of the distillate and make any necessary correction. The
volume of tenth. normal sodium hydroxide consumed is not less than 1.7
cc. and more than 7 cc. (esters).
To 5 cc. of the distillate add 2 cc. of sodium hydroxide T .S. and 5
drops of a freshly prepared aqueous solution of sodium nitroprusside
(1 in 50), then add a slight excess of acetic acid: no violet tint is
produced in one minute (acetone). A mixture of 0.5
cc. of the distillate with 5 cc. of distilled water meets the
requirements of the test for methanol under
Alcohol. Acidulate 10 cc. of Whisky with 5 drops of
diluted hydrochloric acid and evaporate to 5 cc. Dilute with distilled water
to 10 cc. and filter if necessary.
The addition of iodine T.S. or mercuric potassium iodide T.S. yields
no precipitate (alkaloids) .Dilute 10 cc.
of Whisky with 2 cc. of distilled water, transfer to a test tube, and
shake gently for two minutes with 15 cc. of a mixture of 100 cc. of
amyl alcohol, 3 cc of phosphoric acid, and 3 cc. of distilled water,
and allow the layers to separate completely: the lower aqueous layer
is colorless or very nearly so (caramel) .Mix 5 cc. of
Whisky with 5 cc. of distilled water and shake the mixture with 10 cc. of
purified petroleum benzin. Transfer the separated benzin to a dish of from
70 to 80 cc. capacity, add 1 cc. of sodium hydroxide solution (1 in
10), and evaporate to dryness on a water bath. Add to the dry residue
2 00. of sulphuric acid, rotating the acid in the dish so that the
residue will be cornpletely moistened. Heat for two minutes on a water
bath, and pour the solution into a dry test tube containing from 0.03
to 0.05 Gm. of resorcinol. Heat the mixture for three minutes at 160�
to 170� C., shaking at intervals to dissolve all of the resorcinol.
Then pour the solution into a mixture of 70 cc. of distilled water and
30 cc. of sodium hydroxide solution ( 1 in 10) , adding more sodium
hydroxide, if necessary, to make the mixture alkaline. The liquid shows no
yeIlowish-green fluorescence after standing twenty-four hours
(diethylphthalate) . Mix 2 cc. of
an aqueous solution of phloroglucinol (1 in 100) with 5 cc. of sodium
hydroxide T.S. and add 2 cc. of Whisky : no red color is produced (formaldehyde). Mix 20 cc. of
Whisky with 20 cc. of distilled water and shake the mixture with 10
cc. of ether. .Allow the mixture to stand until separation takes
place, separate the ether layer, and allow it to evaporate spontaneously
on a watch glass: the residue has no disagreeable or irritating odor.
Evaporate 20 cc. of Whisky in a dish on a water bath and dry the
residue to constant weight at 100� C. : the weight of the residue does
not exceed 0.10 Gm. This residue is not sticky, it has a slightly
astringent taste but is not distinctly sweet or bitter
(glycerin, sugar, etc.) .Evaporate 10 cc. of Whisky to 5 cc. and
dilute with 10 cc. of distilled water, acidulate with 5 drops of
hydrochloric acid, and add 10 cc. of hydrogen sulphide TS. no
precipitate is formed before or after rendering alkaline with ammonia (heavy metals). Place 2 cc. of
mercuric sulphate TS. in a test tube, add 5 drops of Whisky and heat
the mixture just to boiling over a small Bunsen burner and remove it
from the flame: no yellow precipitate is formed
alcohol). The addition of an excess of bromine TS. to
5 cc. of Whisky, diluted with an equal volume of distilled water,
produces no precipitate (phenols). U.S. The alcoholic strength
of whisky may usually be determined by taking the specific gravity
directly, and calculating the alcoholic strength from the appropriate
table. This method is only applicable, however, to straight whiskies,
as the caramel, prune juice and other ingredients added to imitation
and blended whiskies are, disturbing factors. When working with
unknown samples, therefore, it is customary to distil according to the
directions in the U. S. P . method for determining alcohol.
In interpreting the results of the application of the U. S. P. tests
for Spiritus Frumenti, the following points may be mentioned. A
specimen which contains denaturants is unquestionably spurious. A
specimen which is low in acidity, very light in color with no added
caramel, is either an immature whisky or a straight whisky which has been
reduced with silent spirit and water. This is the type legally recognized as
a blended whisky even when caramel color is present but it does not
meet the Pharmacopoeia official definition. A specimen which is low in
acidity, but which contains caramel, and leaves an excessive amount of
a sticky residue upon evaporation is an imitiation Whiskey. Alcoholic
strength is no criterion of the character of whiskey whatever.
SPIRITUS JUNIPERI. Br. SPIRIT OF JUNIPER Sp.
Teinture d'essence de Genievre. Fr. Spiritus
Juniperi. P.G.; Wachholderspiritus,
G.Oil of Juniper, 100 millilitres; Alcohol (90 per cent.), sufficient
to produce 1000 millilitres. Dissolve. When not clear, shake with a
little powdered talc and filter.
This Spirit is of twice the strength of the corresponding preparation of
the British Pharmacopoeia, 1898
This spirit has been omitted from the U. S. X; that formerly official was
half the strength of the British
preparation. The compound spirit (spiritus Juniperi Compositus) was
formerly recognized by the U. S.
Its formula was : " Oil of Juniper, eight mils; Oil of Caraway, one mil;
Oil of Fennel, one mil; Alcohol,fourteen hundred mils; Water, a sufficient
quantity, to make two thousand mils. Dissolve the oils in the alcohol,
and gradually add enough water to make the product measure two
thousand mils U.S.IX. This spirit is used chiefly as an addition to diuretic
Dose, from ten to twenty minims
SPIRITUS LAVANDULAE. U.S. Br. SPIRIT OF
LAVENDER Sp. Lavand.
Teinture d'essence de Lavande. Fr.; Spiritus
Lavanduile, P. G.; Lavandelsplrltus. G. Oil of Lavender, 50 cc. ;
Alcohol, a sufficient quantity to make 1000 cc. Mix the Oil with
sufficient alcohol to make the product measure 1000 cc. Alcohol content, by
volume, 85 to 92 per cent." U.S.
Oil of Lavender, 100 millilitres; Alcohol (90 per cent) , sufficient
to produce 1000 millilitres. Dissolve. When not clear, shake with a
little powdered talc and filter." Br.
Spirit of lavender is used widely as a perfume, and as an ingredient
in other preparations.
The perfume usually sold under the name of lavender
water is not a distilled spirit, but an alcoholic
solution of the oil, with the addition of other odorous substances.
The following is given by Brande as one of the most approved recipes
for preparing it. " Take of rectified spirit five gallons, essential
oil of lavender twenty ounces, essential oil of bergamot five ounces, essence of
ambergris [made by digesting one drachm of
ambergris and eight grains of musk in half a pint of alcohol]
half an ounce. Mix." The Br. spirit is double the strength or the U.S.
preparation. It is a grateful stimulant and carminative when
administered in sweetened water.
Dose, of the U. S. Spirit, from ten
to thirty minims (0.6-1.8 cc.) ; of the Br. Spirit, five to twenty
minims (0.3-1.3 cc.).
Off. Prep. Mistura Ferri Composita, N. F.
SPIRITUS MENTHAE PIPERITAE. U.S., Br. SPIRIT OF PEPPERMINT Sp. Menth.
Pip. [Essence of Peppermint)
Teinture d'essenoe de Menthe, Fr. Cod.; Esprit de Menthe; Fr.;
Spiritus Menthae Piperitae, P. G.; Pfefferminz Spiritus,
Englische Pfeffermmzessenz, G.; Alcohol de menta piperlta, Sp.
Oil of Peppermint, 100 cc. ; Peppermint, bruised, 10 Gm. ; Alcohol, a
sufficient quantity to make 1000 cc. Macerate the peppermint leaves, freed
as much as possible from stems, during one hour in 500 cc. of -water,
and then strongly express them. Mix 800 cc. of alcohol with the oil, add the
moist, macerated leaves, and allow to stand during six hours with frequent
agitation. Filter and pass sufficient alcohol through the filter to
make the product measure 1000 cc.
Preserve in amber-colored bottles. Alcohol content, by volume, 79 to 85
per cent." U. S. Oil of Peppermint, 100 millilitres. Alcohol (90 per cent) ,
sufficient to produce 1000 millilitres . Dissolve. When not clear, shake
with a little powdered talc and filter." Br.
This is one of the numerous spirits that were made by distillation,
but are now made of more uniform strength and better quality by simple
solution of the oil in alcohol. The American spirit is green in color,
but the British is almost colorless. P.H.U. tech suggests the maceration of
the peppermint in water for two hours, washing and draining, before
adding to the solution of the oil; water soluble matter is removed and a
more permanent green color produced. He recommends the same treatment for
the spearmint in making spirit of spearmint, and the U. S. P. IX
adopted this plan. It has long been popularly used under the name of
essence of peppermint. The flavoring " extract " or " essence " as it
is called is a much weaker preparation and contains but 3 per cent. by
volume of the oil. It must not be confused with the official spirit.
(See article by E. F. Kelly, J. A. Ph. A., 1919, viii, 115.) The
spirit of peppermint affords a convenient method of administering a
dose of the volatile oil, being of such a strength that when dropped
on loaf-sugar it may be taken without inconvenience. For a discussion of
the methods of assay for this preparation (see a paper by H. L. Thompson,
.A. J. P., 1916, lxxxviii, 303.)
Dose, ten to thirty minims (0.6-1.8
cc.), given as just mentioned, or mixed with sweetened water.
SPIRITUS MENTHAE VIRIDIS. U.S. SPIRIT OF
SPEARMINT Sp. Menth. Vir.
Tinctura Olei Menthae Viridis, U. S. 1850; Essence of Spearmint; Gr�ne
Oil of Spearmint, 100 cc. ; Spearmint, bruised, 10 Gm. ; Alcohol, a
sufficient quantity to make 1000 cc. Macerate the spearmint leaves, freed as
much as possible from stems, during one hour in 500 cc. of water, and
then strongly express them. Mix 800 cc. of alcohol with the oil, add the
moist macerated leaves, and allow to stand during six hours with
frequent agitation. Filter, and pass sufficient alcohol through the
filter to make the product measure 1000 cc. Preserve in amber-colored
bottles. Alcohol content, by volume, 79 to 85 per cent. U.S. The
remarks made on the Spirit of Peppermint are equally applicable here.
Dose, ten to thirty minims (0.6-1.8
SPIRITUS MYRISTICAE. Br. SPIRIT OF NUTMEG
[Essence of Nutmeg]
Teinture d'essence de muscade, Fr.; Muskatspiritus, G.
Oil of Nutmeg, 100 millilitres, Alcohol (90 per cent. ), sufficient to
produce 1000 millilitres. Dissolve. When not clear, shake with a
little powdered talc and filter." Br.
It is used chiefly for its flavor. (See
Dose, from five to twenty minims
SPIRITUS ROSMARINI. Br. SPIRIT OF
Spiritus Anthos; Teinture d'essence de Romarin, Fr.; Ros- marinspiritus,
G.; Alcohol de romero, Sp.
Oil of Rosemary, 100 millilitres Alcohol (90 per
cent), sufficient to produce 1000 millilitres.Dissolve. When not
clear, shake with a little powdered talc and filter." Br.
This spirit is not official in the United States Pharmacopoeia X. It is a
grateful perfume, and is used chiefly as an odorous ingredient in lotions
SPIRITUS VINI VITIS. U. S. BRANDY Sp. Vin. Vit.
"Brandy is an alcoholic liquid obtained by the distillation of the
fermented juice of sound, ripe grapes and containing not less than 48 per
cent. and not more than 54 per cent. by volume of CaH&OH, at 15.56� C.
It must have been stored in wood containers for a period of not less
than four years. U.S.
Eau de Vie, Fr.; Branntwein, Schnapps, G; Acquavite, It.
The term " brandy " has been applied generically to the ardent
spirit obtained by the distillation of a fermented fruit juice. More
frequently it is used in the official sense to designate Grape Brandy,
that is, the liquor distilled from wine. This form of brandy is often
known as cognac, from the name of a town in
the Department of Charrente, France.
The process of manufacturing brandy is essentially the same as that
for making whisky (see Spiritus Frumenti) except
that it is distilled from fermented grape juice instead of the products of
During the storage of the brandy the liquor undergoes analogous
changes to those which take place in whisky. As brandy is not made from
cereals or starchy materials, fusel oil is never present in the
genuine article. As the wood containers are not charred, brandy is of
a paler color than whisky and is apt to contain a larger proportion of
tannic acid. Usually the color is increased by adding caramel.
An artificial or imitation brandy is sometimes made from alcohol by
flavoring with oil of cognac. This latter is
obtained by distillation from wine lees and is said to impart the
characteristic brandy flavor. Such spurious liquor may be recognized
by the absence of tannin and of aldehyde and an unusually high
percentage of residue on evaporation due to the artificial coloring matter,
and frequently by the characteristic odor of amyl acetate which is
frequently used in factitious products.
Description and Physical Properties.
A pale amber-colored liquid, having a characteristic odor and taste, and
an acid reaction. Specific gravity: from 0.933 to 0.921 at 25" C.
Evaporate 20 cc. of Brandy in a dish on a water bath, treat the residue
with 5 cc. of distilled water, filter, and add to the filtrate a drop of
diluted ferric chloride T.S. (1 in 10): a geenish-black coloration is
produced (indicating storage in wood barrels) .Evaporate 20
cc. of brandy in a dish in a water bath and dry the residue to
constant weight at 100� C. : the weight of the residue does not exceed
0.30 Gm. A 25 cc. portion of Brandy, diluted with 60 cc. of distilled water,
requires for neutralization not more than 3.8 cc. of tenth-normal
sodium hydroxide, using 3 drops of phenolphthalein T.S. as indicator
(free acid). Dilute 20 cc. of Brandy with 5 cc. of distilled
water and slowly distil 20 cc. using an efficient condenser: the
distillate meets the requirements of the tests for
acetone and methanol under
Spiritus Frumenti. Brandy meets the requirements of the tests for
purity under Spiritus Frumenti beginning with
the test for
alkaloids but omitting the tests for
caramel and for
sugar, etc. U.S.