The Spirits of the USD 21st Edition 1926.
Foreword by
Ivor Hughes.

When one reads the formula monograph for each of the spirits listed. If  the monograph uses word 'Alcohol' in the preparation instructions. That  should be taken to mean the rectified 90 percent v/v alcohol specified by the  pharmacopoeia. There are some very good reasons for that.

Brandy and Whiskey are esteemed as beverages around the world. The  whiskey is a grain spirit. The Brandy is grape spirit. The difference in odour,  taste and physiological effect is marked.

Different brands differ widely in taste and smoothness etc. Sometimes  because the product may be blended or tampered with to make it acceptable, or of  insufficient age. However of great importance is from where was the grain  or grapes harvested, and in what condition.

The chemistry of the soil changes from district to district, as does the composition of the water in terms of the mineral and metal salts that it contains.  In the Cosmetic and Medical sense, the whiskey and the brandy monographs are interesting, because they show some of the many impurities that the respective alcohols contain. Each of the constituents in the beverages are chemical entities in their own right and each will produce a physiological  reaction. To complicate matters, the nature and structure of the  constituents are constantly changing with age. It may be readily seen that the number of variables involved in preparing a lotion or potion,  render it almost impossible to predict an outcome. Therefore such beverage alcohols must be rectified to fit them for the purpose for which they are to be  used.


Alcoolats. Fr.; Geiste, G.; Spirito, It.; Espiritu, Solucion Alooholica, Sp.

Spirits, as the term is here used, are alcoholic solutions of volatile principles formerly procured by distillation,  but now frequently prepared by simply dissolving the volatile substance or substances in alcohol. The spirits as a rule are prepared by simple solution of the active substance in alcohol. A few are prepared by distillation as Spiritus Frumenti and Spiritus vim Vitis. Some are therapeutic agents of value, others are employed merely as flavoring agents. These latter are sometimes confused  with the "flavoring extracts " or " essences " used in culinary practice, but  as a rule the official spirits are much stronger than the flavoring extracts of  the same name, and in some cases, notably Spiritus Amygdalae contain  constituents which are not suitable for use in food products.


Oil of Anise, 100 cc. ; Alcohol, a sufficient quantity to  make 1000 cc. Mix the oil with sufficient alcohol to make the product measure  1000 cc. Alcohol content, by volume, 80 to 87 per cent." US. Oil of Anise, 100  millilitres Alcohol (90 per cent.), sufficient to produce 1000 millilitres.  Dissolve. When not clear, shake with a little powdered talc and filter." Br. 

Dose, as a  stomachic and carminative, from twenty to sixty minims (1.3 - 3.75 cc.),properly  diluted.


Esprit de Raifort composee.  Alcoolat antiscorbutique. Fr., Zusammengesetzter Meerrettiggeist, G..

Horseradish :Root, scraped, 125  grammes. Dried Bitter-Orange Peel, bruised, 125 gram.mes; Nutmeg, bruised, 3  grammes; Alcohol (90 per cent.), 625 millilitres; Distilled Water, 750  millilitres. Macerate the Horseradish Root in the Distilled Water for one hour,  add the other ingredients, and distil one thousand millilitres, Specific gravity  0.917 to 0.927." Br.

This may be used advantageously as  an addition to diuretic remedies, in dropsy attended with debility, especially  in the case of drunkards

Dose, from one to four fluidrachms (3.75 - 15cc.).


Teinture d'essence d'orange, Esprit d'orangecomposee, Fr. :  Zusammengesetzter Orangegeist, G. Oil of Orange, 200 cc. ; Oil of Lemon, 50 cc.  ; Oil of Coriander, 20 cc. ; Oil of Anise, 5 00. ; Alcohol, a  sufficient quantity to make 1000 cc. Mix the oils with sufficient alcohol to make  the product measure 1000 cc.
Preserve in dark amber-colored bottles. " Alcohol content, by volume, 65  to 70 per cent." U. S.

This compound spirit has been introduced for the purpose of producing the  orange flavor in making the official aromatic elixir, and in various N. F.  elixirs. It will be found by physicians to be a useful and fragrant addition to  prescriptions.

Off. Prep. Elixir Aromaticum, U. S.


Teintured'essence de Cajeput,  Alcoole d'essence de Cajeput, Fr. : Cajeputgeist, G. Oil of Cajuput, 100  millilitres; Alcohol (90 per cent.), sufficient to produce 1000 millilitres.  Dissolve. When not clear, shake with a little powdered talc and filter ." Br

For an account of the medicinal properties and uses of oil of cajuput, of  which this is simply an alcoholic solution, see Oleum Cajuputi.

Dose, from five to twenty minims (0.3-1.3 cc.), properly  diluted.


Spirit of Camphor contains not less  than 9.5 Gm. and not more than 10.5 Gm. of camphor in each 100 cc.  US.
Tinctura Camphorae, US. 1850; Tincture of Camphor;

100 Gm. ; Alcohol, a  sufficient quantity, to make 1000 cc. Dissolve the camphor in about 800 cc. of  alcohol and add enough alcohol to make the product measure 1000 cc. Filter if  necessary." U.S.
" Camphor, 100 grammes Alcohol (90  per cent.) , sufficient to produce 1000 millilitres. Dissolve. specific  gravity, 0.845 to 0.850.


Oil of Cinnamon, 100 cc. ; Alcohol, a sufficient quantity to make 1000  cc. Mix the oil with sufficient alcohol to make the product measure 1000 cc.  Alcohol content, by volume, 80 to 87 per cent. US.

Oil of Cinnamon, 100 millilitres Alcohol (90 per cent.), sufficient to  produce 1000 millilitres. Dissolve. When not clear, shake with a little powdered  talc and filter." Br. The spirit of cinnamon is an agreeable aromatic cordial. 

Dose, from ten to thirty  minims (0.6-1.8 cc.) in water.


Whisky is an alcoholic liquid obtained by  the distillation of the fermented mash of wholly or partly malted cereal grains,  and containing not less than 47 percent. and not more than 53 percent. by volume  of CaH6OH, at 15.56� C. It must have been stored in charred wood containers for  a period of not less than four years. US.

The term " whisky " is a corruption of the  Gaelic " usquebaugh " or more correctly '.uisgebeatha, " which signifies " water  of life" and is said to have been first applied to the spirit obtained from  barley in the Highlands of Scotland. As at present understood and as officially  defined, whisky is the distilled spirit from the mash of various grains,  including maize, wheat, rye and barley.

In the United States it is generally made from corn or rye. The term is  occasionally extended to other forms of ardent spirit; that resulting from the  distillation of cider is frequently although incorrectly designated as " apple  whisky."

In the preparation of whisky, the. infusion of partially germinated grain  (see Maltum), which is known as " mash," is made to ferment by the addition of  yeast. This is submitted to distillation, the resulting product being  denominated " low wine." By a second distillation it becomes purer and stronger  and is known as raw spirit or raw whisky.

When stored in wooden vessels it undergoes slow oxidation losing the  disagreeable odor and taste which it is apt to have when first distilled. It is  generally believed that these changes involve the conversion of the aldehydic  constituents of raw spirit into acids which unite with the higher alcohols of  the fusel oil (see Amyl Alcohol, Part II) to form esters, the latter giving the  improved taste and mellowness to aged whisky. The oxidation of the aldehydic  constituents may be accomplished more rapidly by percolating the whisky through  wood shavings. The peculiar flavor of Scotch whisky is due to the presence of  small amounts of creosote and other constituents of smoke derived from the use  of kiln-dried malt which has absorbed empyreumatic products.

When freshly distilled, whisky is colorless, but when stored in charred  wooden casks it acquires its characteristic color from the carmelized ' wood gum  " of the barrel. During storage there is an increase in acidity, a loss of amyl  alcohol and apparently a slight increase in the amount of furfural. There are  volatile principles naturally existing in the grains which are carried over in  the successive distillations and give their characteristic flavor to the  resulting spirit. These can scarcely be considered as impurities but there are  others produced during the process of fermentation which seriously contaminate  the product. Among these is the mixture known as fusel oil which is offensive  both to smell and to taste.

Minute proportions of acetic and butyric acids are often present in  whisky and valeric acid has been reported. A spurious or imitation ,whisky is  often made by the addition of caramel or other coloring matter to alcohol and  the addition of some genuine whisky to impart a characteristic flavor. This has  led to considerable argument as to the definition of whisky, a question which  can not be considered as entirely settled even at the present time although the  question is not now as important as it was some years ago when the sale of  whisky was only regulated by licensing provisions of the laws.

What is a straight whisky, what is a blended whisky and what is an  imitation whisky are the three fundamental questions. There is little argument  over the first and the third of these questions. It is the second one upon which  there is disagreement. Straight whisky is whisky which has been aged in wood for  a sufficient length of time to ensure the changes by which the congeners of the  alcoholic distillate are altered in a manner which produces the characteristic  odor and taste distinctive of whisky, coloring matter from the charred oak  barrels being at the same time taken up. Imitation whisky. is an alcoholic  liquid of approximately the same proof strength as whisky and colored and  flavored in imitation of the same.

Blended whisky according to the original interpretation of Dr. H. W.  Wiley, then head of the Bureau of Chemistry, is a mixture of straight whiskies  of different types and varying degrees of maturity. This position was reversed  by the U. S. Dept. of .Agriculture officials in 1907 and the reversal. was  upheld by a decision of President Taft who acted as arbiter in the  matter.

The text of President Taft's decision; given Feb. 16, 1910, is as  follows: " The term , straight whisky' is well understood in the trade and well  understood by consumers. There is no .reason, therefore, why those who make  straight whisky may not have the brand upon their barrels of straight whisky  with further descriptive terms as 'Bourbon' or 'Rye' whisky, as the composition  of the grain used may justify, and they may properly add, if they choose, that  it is aged in the wood. Those who make whisky of' rectified,' , redistilled,'  or' neutral , spirits cannot complain if, in order to prevent frauds, they are  required to use a brand which shall show exactly the kind of whisky they are  selling. For that reason it seems to me fair to require them to brand their  product as' whisky made from rectified spirits,' or' whisky made from  redistilled spirits,' or' whisky made from neutral spirits,' as the case may be;  and if aged in the wood, as sometimes is the case with this class of whiskies,  they may add this fact. A great deal of the liquor sold is a mixture of straight  whisky with whisky made from neutral spirits. Now, the question is whether this  ought to be regarded as a compound or a blend.

The Pure Food Law provides that' in the case of articles labelled,  branded, or tagged so as to plainly indicate that they are compounds,  imitations, or blends,' the term' blend' shall be construed to mean a mixture of  like substances, not excluding harmless coloring or flavoring ingredients used  for the purpose of coloring and flavoring only. It seems to me that straight  whisky and whisky made from neutral spirits, each with more than 99.5 percent.  ethyl alcohol and water, and with less than half of one per cent. of fusel oil,  are clearly a mixture of like substances, and that while the latter may have and  often does have burnt sugar or caramel to flavor and color it, such coloring and  flavoring ingredients may be regarded as for flavoring and coloring only,  because the use of burnt sugar to color and flavor spirits as whisky is much  older than the coloring and flavoring by the tannin of the charred bark. 

Therefore, where straight whisky and whisky made from  neutral spirits are mixed, it is proper to call them a blend of straight whisky  and whisky made from neutral spirits. This is also in accord with the decision  of the British Royal Commission in the case which I have cited upon a similar  issue. Neutral spirits made from molasses and reduced to potable strength has  sometimes been called whisky, but not for a sufficient length of time or under  circumstances justifying the conclusion that it is a proper trade name. The  distillate from molasses used for drinking has commonly been known as rum. The  use of whisky for it is a misbranding."

The following standards were then adopted by the Joint  Standards Committee of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, and  the American Society of National Food and Dairy Officials:

New whisky is the  properly distilled spirit from the properly prepared and properly fermented mash  of malted grain, or of grain the starch of which has been hydrolyzed by malt; it  has an alcoholic strength corresponding to the excise laws of the various  countries in which it is produced, and contains in 100 liters of proof spirit  not less than 100 grammes of the various substances other than ethyl alcohol  derived from the grain from which it is made, and of those produced during  fermentation, the principal part of which consists of higher alcohols estimated  as amylic.

Whisky (potable whisky) is new whisky which has been stored in wood  not less than four years without any artificial heat save that which may be im-  parted by warming the storehouse to the usual temperature, and contains in 100  liters of proof spirit not less than 200 grammes of the substances found in new  whisky, save as they are changed or eliminated by storage, and of those produced  as secondary bodies during aging; and in addition thereto, the substances and of  those produced as secondary bodies during aging; and, in addition thereto, the  substances extracted from the casks in which it has been stored. It contains,  when prepared for consumption as permitted by the regulations of the Bureau of  Internal Revenue, not less than 45 per cent. by volume of ethyl alcohol, and, if  no statement is made concerning its alcoholic strength, it contains not less  than 50 per cent of ethyl alcohol by volume, as prescribed by law.

Rye whisky is a whisky in the manufacture of which rye, either in a  malted condition or with sufficient barley or rye malt to hydrolyze the starch,  is the only. grain used.

Bourbon whisky is a whisky made in Kentucky  from a mash of Indian corn and rye, and barley malt, of which Indian corn forms  more than 50 per cent.

Corn whisky is whisky made from malted Indian  corn or of Indian corn the starch of which has been hydrolyzed by barley malt.

Blended whisky is a mixture of two or more whiskys.
Scotch Whisky is whisky made in Scotland solely from barley malt, in the drying of which peat has been used. It contains in 100 liters of proof spirit not less  than 150 grammes of the various substances pre- scribed for whisky exclusive of  those extracted from the cask.
Irish whisky is whisky made in Ireland,  and conforms in the proportions of its various ingredients to Scotch whisky,  save that it may be made of the same materials as prescribed for whisky, and the  malt used is not dried over peat. Neutral spirit is a grain distillate, of a  high degree of purity and known as " silent spirit " on account of the ease with  which it may be used as a blending ingredient without the production of a harsh  and disagreeable odor.

Description and Physical Properties.

A light to deep amber-colored liquid, having a  characteristic odor and taste, and an acid reaction.

Specific gravity: from 0,935 to 0.923 at 25�  C.

The residue obtained by evaporating 20 cc.  of Whisky in a dish on a water bath is not completely soluble in 5 cc. of  distilled water.

Filter the solution and add to the filtrate a drop of diluted  ferric chloride T.S. (1 in 10) : a greenish-black coloration is produced ( indicating storage in wood barrels) .A 25 cc. portion of Whisky, diluted with 50  cc. of distilled water, requires for neutralization not less than 1.5 cc. and  not more than 5 cc. of tenth-normal sodium hydroxide, using 3 drops of  phenolphthalein T.S. as indicator. Mix 100 cc. of Whisky with 15 cc. of  distilled water and slowly distil l00 cc., using an efficient condenser. 

Neutralize 50 cc. of the distillate with tenth-normal sodium hydroxide, using 5  drops of phenolphthalein T .S. as indicator, then add exactly 20 cc. more of the  tenth-normal sodium hydroxide and boil for one hour under a reflux condenser.  Cool and titrate the excess of alkali with tenth-normal sulphuric acid. Run a  blank test, using distilled water in place of the distillate and make any  necessary correction. The volume of tenth. normal sodium hydroxide consumed is  not less than 1.7 cc. and more than 7 cc. (esters).

To 5 cc. of the distillate  add 2 cc. of sodium hydroxide T .S. and 5 drops of a freshly prepared aqueous  solution of sodium nitroprusside (1 in 50), then add a slight excess of acetic acid: no violet tint is produced in one minute (acetone). A mixture of 0.5 cc.  of the distillate with 5 cc. of distilled water meets the requirements of the  test for methanol under Alcohol. Acidulate 10 cc. of Whisky with 5 drops of  diluted hydrochloric acid and evaporate to 5 cc. Dilute with distilled water to  10 cc. and filter if necessary.

The addition of iodine T.S. or mercuric  potassium iodide T.S. yields no precipitate (alkaloids) .Dilute 10 cc. of Whisky  with 2 cc. of distilled water, transfer to a test tube, and shake gently for two  minutes with 15 cc. of a mixture of 100 cc. of amyl alcohol, 3 cc of phosphoric  acid, and 3 cc. of distilled water, and allow the layers to separate completely:  the lower aqueous layer is colorless or very nearly so (caramel) .Mix 5 cc. of  Whisky with 5 cc. of distilled water and shake the mixture with 10 cc. of  purified petroleum benzin. Transfer the separated benzin to a dish of from 70 to  80 cc. capacity, add 1 cc. of sodium hydroxide solution (1 in 10), and evaporate  to dryness on a water bath. Add to the dry residue 2 00. of sulphuric acid,  rotating the acid in the dish so that the residue will be cornpletely moistened.  Heat for two minutes on a water bath, and pour the solution into a dry test tube  containing from 0.03 to 0.05 Gm. of resorcinol. Heat the mixture for three  minutes at 160� to 170� C., shaking at intervals to dissolve all of the  resorcinol. Then pour the solution into a mixture of 70 cc. of distilled water  and 30 cc. of sodium hydroxide solution ( 1 in 10) , adding more sodium  hydroxide, if necessary, to make the mixture alkaline. The liquid shows no  yeIlowish-green fluorescence after standing twenty-four hours (diethylphthalate) . Mix 2 cc. of an aqueous solution of phloroglucinol (1 in 100) with 5 cc. of  sodium hydroxide T.S. and add 2 cc. of Whisky : no red color is produced  (formaldehyde). Mix 20 cc. of Whisky with 20 cc. of distilled water and shake  the mixture with 10 cc. of ether. .Allow the mixture to stand until separation  takes place, separate the ether layer, and allow it to evaporate spontaneously  on a watch glass: the residue has no disagreeable or irritating odor. Evaporate  20 cc. of Whisky in a dish on a water bath and dry the residue to constant  weight at 100� C. : the weight of the residue does not exceed 0.10 Gm. This  residue is not sticky, it has a slightly astringent taste but is not distinctly  sweet or bitter (glycerin, sugar, etc.) .Evaporate 10 cc. of Whisky to 5 cc. and  dilute with 10 cc. of distilled water, acidulate with 5 drops of hydrochloric  acid, and add 10 cc. of hydrogen sulphide TS. no precipitate is formed before or  after rendering alkaline with ammonia (heavy metals). Place 2 cc. of mercuric  sulphate TS. in a test tube, add 5 drops of Whisky and heat the mixture just to  boiling over a small Bunsen burner and remove it from the flame: no yellow  precipitate is formed (isopropyl alcohol). The addition of an excess of bromine  TS. to 5 cc. of Whisky, diluted with an equal volume of distilled water,  produces no precipitate (phenols). U.S. The alcoholic strength of whisky may  usually be determined by taking the specific gravity directly, and calculating  the alcoholic strength from the appropriate table. This method is only  applicable, however, to straight whiskies, as the caramel, prune juice and other  ingredients added to imitation and blended whiskies are, disturbing factors.  When working with unknown samples, therefore, it is customary to distil  according to the directions in the U. S. P . method for determining alcohol. 

In interpreting the results  of the application of the U. S. P. tests for Spiritus Frumenti, the following  points may be mentioned. A specimen which contains denaturants is unquestionably  spurious. A specimen which is low in acidity, very light in color with no added  caramel, is either an immature whisky or a straight whisky which has been  reduced with silent spirit and water. This is the type legally recognized as a  blended whisky even when caramel color is present but it does not meet the  Pharmacopoeia official definition. A specimen which is low in acidity, but which  contains caramel, and leaves an excessive amount of a sticky residue upon  evaporation is an imitiation Whiskey. Alcoholic strength is no criterion of the  character of whiskey whatever.


Teinture d'essence de Genievre. Fr. Spiritus Juniperi. P.G.;  Wachholderspiritus, G.Oil of Juniper, 100 millilitres; Alcohol (90 per cent.),  sufficient to produce 1000 millilitres. Dissolve. When not clear, shake with a  little powdered talc and filter.

This Spirit is of twice the strength of the corresponding preparation of  the British Pharmacopoeia, 1898

This spirit has been omitted from the U. S. X; that formerly official was  half the strength of the British

preparation. The compound spirit (spiritus Juniperi Compositus) was  formerly recognized by the U. S.
Its formula was : " Oil of Juniper, eight mils; Oil of Caraway, one mil;  Oil of Fennel, one mil; Alcohol,fourteen hundred mils; Water, a sufficient quantity, to make two thousand  mils. Dissolve the oils in the alcohol, and gradually add enough water to make the product measure two  thousand mils U.S.IX. This spirit is used chiefly as an addition to diuretic  infusions.

Dose, from ten to twenty minims (0.6-1.2 cc.).


Teinture d'essence de Lavande. Fr.; Spiritus Lavanduile, P. G.;  Lavandelsplrltus. G. Oil of Lavender, 50 cc. ; Alcohol, a sufficient quantity to  make 1000 cc. Mix the Oil with sufficient alcohol to make the product measure 1000 cc. Alcohol content, by volume, 85 to 92  per cent." U.S.

Oil of Lavender, 100 millilitres; Alcohol  (90 per cent) , sufficient to produce 1000 millilitres. Dissolve. When not  clear, shake with a little powdered talc and filter." Br.
Spirit of lavender is  used widely as a perfume, and as an ingredient in other preparations. 

The perfume usually sold under the name of  lavender water is not a distilled spirit, but an alcoholic solution of  the oil, with the addition of other odorous substances. The following is given  by Brande as one of the most approved recipes for preparing it. " Take of  rectified spirit five gallons, essential oil of lavender twenty ounces,  essential oil of bergamot five ounces, essence of ambergris [made by digesting  one drachm of ambergris and eight grains of musk in half a pint of alcohol] half  an ounce. Mix." The Br. spirit is double the strength or the U.S. preparation.  It is a grateful stimulant and carminative when administered in sweetened water. 

Dose, of the U. S. Spirit, from ten to thirty minims  (0.6-1.8 cc.) ; of the Br. Spirit, five to twenty minims (0.3-1.3 cc.). 

Off. Prep. Mistura Ferri Composita, N. F.

SPIRITUS MENTHAE PIPERITAE.  U.S., Br. SPIRIT OF PEPPERMINT Sp. Menth. Pip. [Essence of  Peppermint)

Teinture d'essenoe de  Menthe, Fr. Cod.; Esprit de Menthe; Fr.; Spiritus Menthae  Piperitae, P. G.;  Pfefferminz Spiritus, Englische Pfeffermmzessenz, G.; Alcohol de menta piperlta,  Sp.

Oil of Peppermint, 100 cc. ;  Peppermint, bruised, 10 Gm. ; Alcohol, a sufficient quantity to make 1000 cc. Macerate the peppermint leaves, freed as much as possible from stems, during one  hour in 500 cc. of -water, and then strongly express them. Mix 800 cc. of alcohol with the oil, add the moist, macerated leaves, and allow to stand during six hours with frequent agitation. Filter and pass sufficient alcohol through  the filter to make the product measure 1000 cc.

Preserve in amber-colored bottles. Alcohol content, by volume, 79 to 85  per cent." U. S. Oil of Peppermint, 100 millilitres. Alcohol (90 per cent) ,  sufficient to produce 1000 millilitres . Dissolve. When not clear, shake with a  little powdered talc and filter." Br.

This is one of the numerous spirits that  were made by distillation, but are now made of more uniform strength and better  quality by simple solution of the oil in alcohol. The American spirit is green  in color, but the British is almost colorless. P.H.U. tech suggests the maceration of the peppermint in water for two hours, washing and draining,  before adding to the solution of the oil; water soluble matter is removed and a  more permanent green color produced. He recommends the same treatment for the  spearmint in making spirit of spearmint, and the U. S. P. IX adopted this plan.  It has long been popularly used under the name of essence of peppermint. The  flavoring " extract " or " essence " as it is called is a much weaker  preparation and contains but 3 per cent. by volume of the oil. It must not be  confused with the official spirit. (See article by E. F. Kelly, J. A. Ph. A.,  1919, viii, 115.) The spirit of peppermint affords a convenient method of  administering a dose of the volatile oil, being of such a strength that when  dropped on loaf-sugar it may be taken without inconvenience. For a discussion of  the methods of assay for this preparation (see a paper by H. L. Thompson, .A. J.  P., 1916, lxxxviii, 303.)

Dose, ten to thirty minims (0.6-1.8 cc.), given as just  mentioned, or mixed with sweetened water.


Tinctura Olei Menthae Viridis, U. S. 1850; Essence of Spearmint; Gr�ne  Minzessenz, G.

Oil of Spearmint, 100 cc. ; Spearmint, bruised, 10 Gm. ; Alcohol, a sufficient quantity to make 1000 cc. Macerate the spearmint leaves, freed as much as possible from stems, during one  hour in 500 cc. of water, and then strongly express them. Mix 800 cc. of alcohol with the oil, add the moist  macerated leaves, and allow to stand during six hours with frequent agitation. Filter, and pass sufficient  alcohol through the filter to make the product measure 1000 cc. Preserve in amber-colored bottles. Alcohol content, by  volume, 79 to 85 per cent. U.S. The remarks made on the Spirit of Peppermint are equally applicable here.

Dose, ten to thirty minims (0.6-1.8 cc.)


Teinture d'essence de muscade, Fr.; Muskatspiritus, G.

Oil of Nutmeg, 100 millilitres,  Alcohol (90 per cent. ), sufficient to produce 1000 millilitres. Dissolve. When  not clear, shake with a little powdered talc and filter." Br.
It is used chiefly  for its flavor. (See Oleum Myristicae )

Dose, from five to twenty minims (0.3-1.3 cc.) 


Spiritus Anthos; Teinture d'essence de Romarin, Fr.; Ros- marinspiritus,  G.; Alcohol de romero, Sp.

Oil of Rosemary, 100 millilitres Alcohol (90 per cent), sufficient  to produce 1000 millilitres.Dissolve. When not clear, shake with a little powdered talc and filter." Br.

This spirit is not official in the United States Pharmacopoeia X. It is a  grateful perfume, and is used chiefly as an odorous ingredient in lotions and  liniments,


"Brandy is an alcoholic liquid obtained by the distillation of the  fermented juice of sound, ripe grapes and containing not less than 48 per cent.  and not more than 54 per cent. by volume of CaH&OH, at 15.56� C. It must  have been stored in wood containers for a period of not less than four years.  U.S.
Eau de Vie, Fr.; Branntwein, Schnapps, G; Acquavite, It.

The term  " brandy "  has been applied generically to the ardent spirit obtained by the distillation of a fermented fruit juice. More frequently it is used in the  official sense to designate Grape Brandy, that is, the liquor distilled from  wine. This form of brandy is often known as cognac, from the name of a town in  the Department of Charrente, France.

The process of manufacturing brandy  is essentially the same as that for making whisky (see Spiritus Frumenti) except  that it is distilled from fermented grape juice instead of the products of grains.

During the storage of the brandy  the liquor undergoes analogous changes to those which take place in whisky. As brandy is not made from cereals or starchy materials, fusel oil is never  present in the genuine article. As the wood containers are not charred, brandy  is of a paler color than whisky and is apt to contain a larger proportion of  tannic acid. Usually the color is increased by adding caramel.

An artificial or imitation brandy  is sometimes made from alcohol by flavoring with oil of cognac. This latter is obtained by distillation from wine lees and is said to impart the characteristic  brandy flavor. Such spurious liquor may be recognized by the absence of tannin  and of aldehyde and an unusually high percentage of residue on evaporation due to the artificial coloring matter, and frequently by the characteristic odor of  amyl acetate which is frequently used in factitious products.

Description and Physical Properties
A pale amber-colored liquid, having a characteristic odor and taste, and  an acid reaction. Specific gravity: from 0.933 to 0.921 at 25" C.

Evaporate 20 cc. of Brandy in a dish on a water bath, treat the residue  with 5 cc. of distilled water, filter, and add to the filtrate a drop of diluted  ferric chloride T.S. (1 in 10): a geenish-black coloration is produced  (indicating storage in wood barrels) .Evaporate 20 cc. of brandy in a dish in a  water bath and dry the residue to constant weight at 100� C. : the weight of the  residue does not exceed 0.30 Gm. A 25 cc. portion of Brandy, diluted with 60 cc. of distilled water, requires for neutralization not more than 3.8 cc. of  tenth-normal sodium hydroxide, using 3 drops of phenolphthalein T.S. as indicator (free acid). Dilute 20 cc. of Brandy with 5 cc. of distilled water and  slowly distil 20 cc. using an efficient condenser: the distillate meets the  requirements of the tests for acetone and methanol under Spiritus Frumenti. Brandy meets the requirements of the tests for purity under Spiritus Frumenti beginning with the
test for alkaloids but omitting the tests for caramel and for glycerin, sugar, etc. U.S.