Golden Seal                                                                                               

Oxytocics. Martindale's 24th.
Compiled by Ivor Hughes.

Vegetable Oxytocics
Hydrastis (B.P.C. 1949). Hydrast.; Golden Seal; Yellow Root.
0.6 to 2 g. (10 to 30 grains)

The dried rhizome and roots of golden seal, Hydrastis canadensis (Ranunculaceae), containing not less than 1-5% of hydrastine; it also contains the alkaloids berberine and canadine.

Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Belg., CM., Egyp., Fr ,, Ger. , fug., Mex., Nor., Span., and Swiss Also in U.S.N.F.  The specified content of hydrastine varies from 1.5% to not less than 2-5%.

Mex. and U.S.N.F. specify not less than 2-5% of anhydrous ether-soluble alkaloids. Egyp. And Swiss include a standardised powder containing 2% hydrastine.

  Uses: Hydrastis is said to increase the tone and contractions of the uterus and it has been used to check uterine haemorrhage. For post partum haemorrhage Hydrastis is of little value as an initial treatment but it may be given after the haemorrhage has been controlled by ergometrine. It has also been given as a bitter stomachic and to relive dysmenorrhoea.     

Dry Extract of Hydrastis (B.P.C.1949).  Ext. Hydrast. Sicce.;  Extract of  Hydrastis. Hydrastin a dry alcoholic extract adjusted with calcium phosphate to  contain 5% w/w of hydrastine. Protect from moisture.
Dose: 30 to 120 mg. (� to 2 grains). Span. P. includes a dry extract containing 10% of hydrastine.

Ext. Hydrast. Liq. (B.P.C. 1949). Liquid Extract of Hydrastis; Hydrastis Fluidextract.
Prepared by percolation with alcohol (60%) and adjusted to contain 2% w/v of hydrastine.
Dose: 0.3 to 1 ml. (5 to 15 minims). Chil. P., Egyp. P., Jug. P., Span. P., and Swiss P. include a similar extract. Mex. P. and U.S.N.F. specify 2.5% w/v of ether-soluble alkaloids.

Tinct. Hydrast. (B.P.C. 1949). Tincture of Hydrastis.
Liquid extract of Hydrastis 10 ml., alcohol (60%) to 100 ml. It contains 0:2% w/v of hydrastine.
Dose: 2 to 4 ml. (30 to 60 minims). Fr. P. specifies 0.4% w/w of alkaloids.

Liquor Sedans (Parke, Davis). A flavoured mixture containing in each fl. oz. the equivalent of 30 m. of Hydrastis liquid extract (as hydrastine), black haw 60 gr., and Jamaica dogwood 30 gr., with aromatics. A uterine sedative for dysmenorrhoea.
Dose: 30 to 60 minims.

Raspberry Leaf (B.P.C. 1949). Rubi Idaei Folium. (See fruit in image gallery)
The dried leaflets of Rubus idaeus (Rosaceae). It contains a principle, readily extracted with hot water, which relaxes the smooth muscle of the uterus and intestine of some animals. Raspberry tea is a traditional remedy for painful and profuse menstruation and for use before and during confinement to make parturition easier and speedier.
The dosage which has been used is from 10 to 20 fl. oz. of a 5% infusion of the dried leaves in hot water in wineglassful doses twice or thrice daily. The infusion is also used as an astringent gargle.
A preliminary investigation of the active principles of raspberry leaf.� A. H. Beckett et al, J. Pharm. Pharmacol, 1954, 6, 785.

Idanta (Forsters Pharmaceuticals). Tablets each containing 150 mg. of powdered extract of raspberry leaf. In spasmodic dysmenorrhoea, and for easy parturition.
Dose: 2 tablets every four hours commencing 24 hours before expected onset of period or labour and continued for 24 hours after onset.

Viburnum (B.P.C. 1949). Black Haw; Black Haw Bark; Viburnum Bark; Viburnum Prunifolium (U.S.N.F.).
1 to 2 g. (15 to 30 grains).
The dried root-bark of Viburnum prunifolium (Caprifolioaceae;), containing not less than 14% of alcohol (70%)-soluble extractive.
Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Chil., Cz., Fr., Mex., Span., and Swiss. Also in U.S.N.F. Span, and Swiss specify stem-bark. Mex. and U.S.N.F. specify the bark of the root or stem of V. prunifolium or V. rufidulum.
Uses. Viburnum has been used in dysmenorrhoea and for its supposed sedative effect on the uterus. A survey of the evidence concerning the activity of Viburnum remedies and suggested methods for evaluation.�R. A. Woodbury, Drug Standards, 1951, 19, 143.

Elix. Viburn. (B.P.C.1949). Elixir of Viburnum; Elixir of Black Haw.
Liquid extract of Viburnum 12-5 ml., compound tincture of cardamom 7-5 ml., aromatic elixir to 100 ml.
2 to 8 ml. (30 to 120 minims). Hydrast. (B.P.C. 1949). Elixir of Viburnum and Hydrastis; Elixir of Black Haw and Hydrastis;
Compound Elixir of Viburnum Prunifolium. Liquid extract of Viburnum 50 ml., liquid extract of Hydrastis 8.33 ml., coriander oil 0.42 ml., caraway oil 0.42 ml., glycerin to 100 ml.
Dose: 2 to 4 ml. (30 to 60 minims).

Ext. Viburn. (B.P.C. 1949). Extract of Viburnum; Extract of Black Haw. A soft extract prepared by percolation with alcohol (70%).
Dose: 200 to 500 mg. (3 to 8 grains).

Ext. Viburn. Liq. (B.P.C. 1949). Liquid Extract of Viburnum; Liquid Extract of Black Haw. 1 in 1; prepared by percolation with alcohol (70%).
Dose: 4 to 8 ml. (60 to 120 minims). A similar extract is included in Chil. P., Cz. P., Mex. P., and Span. P.

Viburnum Opulus (U.S.N.F.). High-bush Cranberry Bark; True Cramp Bark.
Usual dose:
4 g. (60 grains). The dried bark of Viburnum opulus var. americanum {=V. trilobum) (Caprifolioaceae). Foreign Pharmacopeias: Pol. includes the dried bark of V. opulus.
Uses. Viburnum opulus has been used in conjunction with other drugs in the treatment of functional uterine disorders, but evidence of its therapeutic activity is conflicting.

See also: Ergot.

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