MARTINDALES 24th 1958. (Br)

Compiled by Ivor Hughes

This is a four part monograph: Maltum U.S. - Extractum Malti U.S. and Hordeum USD 1926 Part II. and Martindales 24th 1958. (Br)

Malt is the grain of one or more varieties of Hordeum sativum Jessen (Fam. Gramineae), partially germinated artificially, and containing amylolytic enzymes. U. S.

Maltum Hordei; Barley Malt; Malt d 'Orge, Fr.; Gerstenmalz, Malz, G.

Preparation. � Malt is prepared on an enormous scale for brewing purposes in many parts of the world where the climate is suited to the growth of barley. The object of the process for making malt, commonly known as malting, is to allow germination of grain to go just far enough to develop the maximum amount of diastase, the ferment by which the starch is converted into sugar, which may afterwards undergo the alcoholic fermentation during the process of brewing. In order to achieve this, the barley is first " steeped " � i.e., allowed to remain one or two days in cold water, of which it absorbs from 10 to 50 per cent.; second, " couched" � i.e., thrown into heaps upon a floor and allowed to develop heat and germinate; third, when the acrospire or shoot is one-third the length of the grain, the latter is " floored " � i.e., spread upon wide floors to dry; fourth, kiln-dried � i.e., exposed to such a temperature as thoroughly to dry it and kill the young plant.

If the temperature be raised high enough to scorch the grain, it becomes Amber Malt, or Black Malt, according to the extent of the caramelizing; only the light colored varieties of malt are suitable for pharmaceutical purposes, the black varieties being practically devoid of diastatic value and being used for coloring mainly. Besides the diastase, a second soluble ferment is formed during the malting process, the so-called peptase, which in the after-mash process changes the proteids of the malt into peptones and para-peptones which give nutritive value to the beer. Malt contains the alkaloid Hordenine. (See under Hordeum, Part II.)

Malt is now frequently germinated by what is called the pneumatic system in which the operation is carried out in large perforated iron drums which are caused to revolve very slowly, and in which the temperature is carefully regulated by ventilating fans. Another mechanical system of malting which is extensively used in some countries, especially in France, is based upon the principle of the ordinary conveyer, a separate section being used for each day that the germination lasts.

The commercial value of a sample of malt is determined by its diastatic power and also by its content of aqueous extract estimated under specified conditions. Between one-half and three-fourths of malt is soluble in cold water. It is composed of germinated grains with the radicles and aerospires adhering.

Description and Physical Properties. � "Yellowish or amber-colored grains. Malt is crisp when broken, the interior surface being nearly white. It has an agreeable, characteristic odor and a sweet taste, due to tie conversion of the starch of the seed into maltose through the action of the diastase. Malt floats on cold water. For the subsequent tests prepare an infusion as follows: Mix 10 Gm. of Malt, in coarse powder, with 100 cc. of distilled water, and maintain the mixture at a temperature of from 50� to 55� C. for one hour, occasionally stirring. Place it upon a filter, and, when the liquid has passed through, wash the contents'of the filter with distilled water, in small portions, until the combined infusion and washings measure 200 cc.

" The weight of the solid soluble constituents of Malt, obtained by evaporating to dryness on a water bath an aliquot portion of the freshly prepared, aqueous infusion and drying the residue for one hour at 100� C., is not less than 70 per cent, of the Malt taken. The acidity of Malt, determined by titrating an aliquot portion of the freshly prepared infusion with tenth-normal sodium hydroxide, using phenolphthalein T.S. as indicator does not exceed 0.3 per cent, calculated as lactic acid.

" Preserve protected from heat and moisture." U. S.

Uses. � Malt is not itself used directly in medicine, but is official as the basis of Extract of Malt. From it are also prepared the so-called 'Malt Liquors by making an infusion (wort) of the bruised malt, adding hops and various other substances, and fermenting. Ale, brown stout, and porter are made by rapid fermentation at a comparatively high temperature 23.8 C., while lager beer is prepared by a very slow, prolonged fermentation at a low temperature.

Off. Prep.� Extractum Malti, U. S.


Essence (Extrait) de Malt, Fr.; Malzextrakt, G.

Extract of Malt is obtained by infusing malt with water at 60� C., concentrating the expressed liquid at a temperature not exceeding 60 C., and adding 10 per cent., by weight, of glycerin. It contains dextrin, maltose, a small amount of glucose, and an amylolytic enzyme. Extract of Malt is capable of converting not less than five times its weight of starch into water-soluble sugars." U. S.

Description and Physical Properties. � " A sweet, viscous, light brown, liquid extract having an agreeable, characteristic odor. It is soluble in cold water, more readily soluble in warm water. Specific gravity: not less than 1.350 and not more than 1.430 at 25� C.

Assay. � Mix a quantity of potato starch, purified as directed under Pancreatinum, equivalent to 5 Gm. of. dried starch, in a beaker with 10 cc. of cold, distilled water. Add 140 cc. of boiling distilled water, and heat on a water bath with constant stirring for two minutes, or until a translucent, uniform paste is obtained. Cool to 40� C. in a suitable bath previously adjusted to this temperature. Add 20 cc. of a fresh solution of Extract of Malt at 40� C., prepared by dissolving 5 Gm. of Extract of Malt in sufficient distilled water to make 100 cc. of solution at 40� C., mix well, and maintain the same temperature for exactly thirty minutes, stirring frequently. A thin, nearly clear liquid is produced. Add at once 0.1 cc. of this liquid to a previously made mixture of 0.2 cc. of tenth normal iodine and 60 cc. of distilled water. No blue or reddish color is produced." U. S.

Under the name of extract of malt, two distinct preparations were formerly found upon the market, the one being a liquid similar to beer, the other, the official extract prepared from malt, composed chiefly of dextrin and glucose, with some albumen and phosphates. The object of the U. S. process is to obtain all of the soluble principles of malt in a permanent form. To secure this, strict attention to the details of the process is necessary. Good extract of malt should contain no starch, have the consistence of thick honey, a brown color, and should be free from empyreumatic taste. A great deal of commercial extract of malt is said to be adulterated with glucose. A dry extract of malt has come into extensive use as an infant's food, made by artificially drying the thick syrupy extract. It is in the form of a straw-colored, coarse powder, and is given dissolved in milk or water.

Extract of malt is a viscid brown liquid with a characteristic empyreumatic flavor and sweet taste. It consists of from 45 to 55 per cent, of maltose, with smaller quantities of dextrin and protein, and contains in addition a characteristic enzyme, diastase. This ferment appears to act very much like the ptyalin of the saliva, converting starch into maltose; it differs from that enzyme, however, in that whereas ptyalin acts most rapidly at the body temperature (37� C.) the malt is most active at a temperature of about 55� C. Chittenden and Cummins have shown that the presence of either free acid or free alkalies interferes with the amylolytic properties of diastase.

Under the name of Diastasum, the U. S. IX recognized a mixture containing the active ferments of malt. It was capable of digesting 50 times its weight of starch and was officially described as follows: "Diastase occurs in a yellowish-white, amorphous powder or in translucent scales; odorless and tasteless. It converts starch into dextrin and maltose. Diastase gradually loses its amylolytic power on keeping; this power is destroyed by heating its solutions above 85� C., or by the addition of much acid and is diminished by the presence of acids or alkalies. Diastase is soluble in water, the solutions being more or less turbid; almost insoluble in alcohol.

Assay. � Mix a quantity of potato starch, purified as directed under Pancreatinum, equivalent to 5 Gm. of dry starch, in a beaker with 10 mils of cold distilled water. Add 140 mils of boiling distilled water, and heat the mixture on a water bath with constant stirring for two minutes, or until a translucent, uniform paste is obtained. Cool the paste to 40� C. in a water bath previously adjusted to this temperature. Prepare a fresh solution of 0.1 Gm. of Diastase in 10 mils of distilled water at 40� C. and add it to the paste. Mix them well and maintain the same temperature for exactly thirty minutes, 30

stirring frequently; a thin, nearly clear liquid is produced. Add at once 0.1 mil of this liquid to a previously made mixture of 0.2 mil of tenth-normal iodine V.S. and 60 mils of distilled water; no blue or reddish color is produced." U. 8. IX.

Diastase is frequently found upon the market in an impure or adulterated condition, samples having been observed containing as much as 60 per cent, of starch. Much of the commercial diastase is variable in strength and frequently it is almost inert. Takadiastase is the name of a proprietary form of diastase which is not produced from malt but is produced by the growth of certain species of Aspergillus upon rice hulls or bran. In Japan takadiastase is used in the brewing industry as malt is used in other countries. Wahl has shown that malt contains a proteolytic as well as an amylolytic ferment.

Uses. � The extract of malt is used in medicine for three purposes, first, as a highly nutritious and easily assimilable food in various states of malnutrition; secondly, for the purpose of increasing the digestion of starches in certain types of dyspepsia. In those rare cases where there is an organic deficiency of saliva, or in the more frequent condition where the patient is too lazy to masticate his food, it may be of service, but as its action upon starch like that of ptyalin is inhibited by the rising acidity of the stomach at mealtime, its range of usefulness as a digestant is certainly not very wide. The third use of the extract of malt is as a vehicle. It is an excellent emulsifying agent and possesses also considerable power in covering unpleasant flavors. For both of these reasons as well as its own nutritive value, it is frequently used in conjunction with cod liver oil. It is also employed widely as a vehicle for eascara sagrada, creosote, and other drugs.

Dose, from one to four fluidrachms (3.75 to 15 cc.).

Off. Prep .� Emulsum Olei Morrhuse cum Malto, N. F.


Hordenine. Para-oxyphenyl-dimethyl-ethylamine. C10H15ON. � It was isolated by Leger from malted barley. The sulphate, crystallizes in prismatic needles giving a violet-blue color with ferric chloride.

Hordenine has been used by Sbrazes and Guerive (C. R. A. 8., 1908, cxlvii) and other authors, in the treatment of various forms of diarrhea and dysentery and in gastric hyper-secretion. According to the researches of Camus (A. I. P. T., 1906, xvi), which are reported by the authors quoted, it would appear that it acts by paralyzing the peripheral ends of the secretory nerves, as does atropine. It appears to affect also the pneumo- gastric and motor nerves and is asserted to have a tonic action upon the heart. Jackson (J. P. Ex. T., 1914, iv, p. 491) finds that hordenine has a powerful effect in overcoming bronchial spasm and suggests its use in asthma. We know, however, of no clinical trials of it in this condition.

The dose is three to eight grains (0.2-0.5 Gm.) three or four times a day.

Hordeum. Barley. Orge, Fr. Gerste, G. � The grains of cultivated varieties of Hordeum vulgare L. and H. distichon L. (Fam. Gramineae). The original country of the cultivated barley is unknown. The plants have been found growing wild in Sicily and in various parts of the interior of Asia. Hordeum vulgare yields the six- and four-rowed barleys and H. distichon, the two-rowed barleys. There are several forms of each of these under cultivation. A form of four-rowed barley, Hordeum vulgare pallidum, is the common barley in Northern America, Europe and Asia.

Clifford Richardson (Bulletin No. 9, Department of Agriculture, 1886) gives the following as the average composition of American barley: water, 6.47 per cent.; ash, 2.87; oil, 2.67; sugar, etc., 7.02; dextrin and soluble starch, 3.55; starch, 62.09; albuminoids soluble in 80 per cent, alcohol, 3.66; albuminoids insoluble in 80 per cent, alcohol, 7.86; fiber, 3.81; total, 100.00. He finds, moreover, that on an average the grain makes up 84.78 per cent, and the hull 15.22 per cent, of the barley. Kuhnemann (B. Ohem. G., 1875 and 1876), found a crystallized dextrogyrate sugar which did not reduce alkaline copper solution, and an amorphous laevogyrate mucilaginous substance called sinistrin. According to Kuhnemann, barley does not contain dextrin.

Barley contains hordein, a proteid substance somewhat related to gliadin which is derived from the kernels of wheat and rye. Hordein is soluble in alcohol. The name was formerly given to a pulverulent mixture obtained from barley which was believed to be a definite substance.Hulled barley is merely the grain deprived of its husk, which, according to Einhoff, amounts to 18.75 parts in the hundred.

Barley meal is formed by grinding the seeds, previously deprived of their Husk. It has a grayish-white color; the constituents are the same as described above for barley. It may be made into a coarse, heavy, hard bread, which in some countries is much used for food.

Pearl barley (Hordeum deoorticatum, Br., 1885) is the seed deprived of all its investments and afterwards rounded and polished in a mill. It is in small round or oval grains, having the remains of the longitudinal furrow of the seeds, and of a pearly whiteness. It is wholly destitute ' of hordein, and abounds in starch, with some gluten, sugar, and gum. This is the proper form of barley for medicinal use.

Barley in the form of the decoction, popularly known as barley water, affords a_ mucilaginous drink much employed from the time of Hippocrates to the present. Pearl barley is the form usually preferred for the preparation of the decoction, made by pouring four pints of boiling water on two troy ounces of pearl barley and boiling away to two pints, and straining. It is especially used in infant feeding, as it seems to prevent the formation of large milk curds by its colloidal character.

MARTINDALES 24th 1958 (Br)


. Maltum; Byne.
Grain of barley, Hordeum distichon or H. vulgare (Gramineae), partially germinated artificially and then dried. The source of pharmaceutical, veterinary, and baker's malt extract and of malt flours for bread making and infants' foods.

Malt flour, or entire malt powdered, is added to baked wheaten flour in various proportions to form popular infants' foods. When these are mixed with hot water or a mixture of hot milk and water, the starch contained in the wheaten flour is converted into dextrin and maltose. The diastasic activity of malt is highest in aqueous solution at 104�F; it is destroyed at the temperature of boiling water.

Extract of Malt (B.P.). Ext. Malt.; Extractum Bynes.
Dose: 4 to 30 ml. (60 to 480 minims) daily, in divided doses. An amber or yellowish-brown viscous liquid with an agreeable odour and sweet taste, containing nitrogen equivalent to, not less than 4% w/w of protein. It is prepared from malted grain of barley, or a mixture of this with not more than 33% of malted grain of wheat. Wt per ml. about 1-4 g. Miscible with water forming a translucent solution.

Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Chil., Chin., Egyp., Ind., and Pol. (Chil., Egyp. and Ind. incorporate 10% w/w of glycerin). Also in U.S.N.F. which permits admixture with 10% w/w of glycerin. Ind. specifies not less than 4-5% w/w of protein.

Extract of Malt contains 50% or more of maltose, together with dextrin, glucose, and small amounts of other carbohydrates and diastase.
Uses. Extract of Malt has nutritive properties. It is chiefly used as a vehicle in preparations containing cod-liver oil and halibut-liver oil.

Ext. Malt. c. Syr. Ferr. Phosph. Co. (N.W.F. 1947). Extract of malt and compound syrup of ferrous phosphate, equal parts by weight of each. Dose: children, 2 to 4 ml. (30 to 60 minims).

Extract of Malt with Cod-liver Oil (B.P.). Ext. Malt. c. Ol. Morrh. Cod-liver oil 10% w/w (about 15% v/v) in extract of malt (about 72 minims in 480 minims). Dose: 4 to 30 ml, (60 to 480 minims) daily, in divided doses. Egyp. P. includes a similar preparation.

Extract of Malt with Halibut-liver Oil (B.P.C.). Ext. Malt. c. Ol. Hippogloss. Extract of malt with sufficient halibut-liver oil to give not less than 60 units of vitamin A activity per g. (not less than 2400 units in 480 minims). Dose: 4 to 30 ml. (60 to 480 minims).

Extractum Malti cum Oleo Selachoidei (Ind. P.). Shark-liver oil 5% w/w in extract of malt. It contains not less than 300 units of vitamin A activity per g. Dose: 4 to 16 ml. (60 to 240 minims).

Liquid Extract of Malt (B.P.C.). Ext. Malt. Liq. It contains about 67-5% v/v of extract of malt in a mixture of alcohol and water. Wt per ml. about 1 -23 g. It is a useful vehicle for the administration of iron salts and liquid extract of cascara. Dose: 4 to 16 ml. (60 to 240 minims).

Mist. Ol. Morrh. c. Ferro (Westminster Child. Hosp.). Compound solution of ferrous phosphate 12 m. (equivalent to 60 m. of compound syrup of ferrous phosphate), extract of malt with cod-liver oil to 60 m.


Bynin Arnara (Allen & Hanburys). Each tablespoonful (� fl. oz.) contains iron phosphate 2� gr., copper sulphate 1/200th gr., and strychnine 1/30th gr., in liquid malt. Dose: � to 1 tablespoonful (� to � fl. oz.).

F.C.V.D. (formerly known as Ferromalt) (Crookes). A combination of malt extract and vitamin D with colloidal iron and copper. Tonic and mild haematinic for children. Dose: � to 2 teaspoonfuls thrice daily after meals.

Kepler (Burroughs Wellcome}. A brand of malt extract, also available with cod-liver oil, and with cod-liver oil and hypophosphites.

Marrowmalt (Armour). A combination of malt extract and red bone marrow for children. Dose: 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls thrice daily after meals.

Radio-Malt (British Drug Houses). A malt extract preparation containing vitamin A, aneurine hydrochloride, riboflavine, and calciferol.

Vimaltol (Wander) is prepared from malt, orange juice, yeast, vitamin concentrate, halibut-liver oil, calciferol, riboflavine, and aneurine, with added iron, calcium, and phosphorus. It contains vitamin A 2000 units, aneurine hydrochloride 0-4 mg., riboflavine 0-3 mg., calciferol 200 units, nicotinic acid 4 mg., and iron 3'3 mg. per oz.

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