United States Dispensatory 1926
Potters Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs
Boericke�s Homeopathic Materia Medica
Compiled by Ivor Hughes

USD 1926 LYCOPODIUM Lycopod. " Lycopodium consists of the spores of Lycopodium clavatum Linne (Tarn. Lycopodiaceae) ." U.S.

Club Moss, Stag�s horn, Semen Lycopodii, Pulvis Lycopodii, Sulphur Vegatabile; Vegetable Sulphur; Lycopode Fr. Cod.; Soufre věgětal, Fr.; Lycopodium, P. G. ; B�rlappsamen , Streupulver, Hexenmehl, Blitzpulver, G.; Licopodio, It., Sp.

Lycopodium clavatum, commonly called club moss, has a trailing, branching stem, several feet long, and thickly beset with linear-awl-shaped, flat, rib less, smooth leaves, tipped with a fine bristle, curved upward, and of a light green color. The fructification is in terminal spikes, single or in pairs, with crowded ovate, entire, pointed scales, bearing in the axil a transversely oval sporangium which splits nearly to the base and contains the narrow reticulate spores. The plant is a native of Europe, Asia, and America, being especially common in the dry woods northward. The spores are collected in the Ukraine, Poland, Switzerland and Germany. Most of the drug of commerce is now gathered in Poland and the Ukraine. It is shipped to this country in bags and cases from Danzig, Hamburg and London.

Description and Physical Properties. � "A light, yellow, very mobile powder, odorless and tasteless; the spores shaped as a three-sided pyramid with convex base, from 0.025 to 0.040 mm. in diameter ; the outer surface reticulate, the reticulations being polygonal and formed by straight-sided delicate ridges, which form a delicate fringe at the edge of the spore; when viewed with the rounded surface of the spore on the under side, a distinct triangular marking is seen, formed by the edges of the flat surfaces of the spore.

" Lycopodium is not wetted by water but floats upon it; when boiled with water, it sinks. When Lycopodium is thrown into a flame, it burns with a quick flash. Lycopodium shows very few, if any, pollen grains from 0.040 to 0.070 mm. in diameter, and consisting of a central, convex, generative cell separating two spherical cells or wings containing air (pine pollen). Lycopodium boiled with water and cooled does not give a bluish or reddish color with iodine T.S. (starch or dextrin)." U. S.

Lycopodium is composed of nearly 50 per cent, of fatty oil, from 3 to 6 per cent, of nitrogen, as albuminous principles, and considerable carbohydrate material. The ash, which ranges from 3 to 5 per cent., is about half P2O5. The fatty oil is mainly olein although there is present small amounts of phytosterin, and traces of the glycerides of arachitic, palmitic and stearic acids. A distinctive acid, lycopodic acid, has been reported to the extent of about 2 per cent, in the oil. The lycopodic acid crystallizes in silky needles, it is doubly refracting like quartz, and appears to be isomeric with dioxystearic acid. (D. C., 1891, 155; see also A. Pharm., 1908, 246.)

Stenhouse found volatile bases to be present in very small amount. Lycopodium is frequently adulterated with such substances as slightly roasted and colored starch, dextrine, powdered colophony, talc, various pollens and a number of other substances. All of these may be readily detected by the microscope. The pollen of coniferous trees has been sold in Austria under the name of Lycopodium Hungaricum.

Folleto recommends two reactions to detect pollen: one by adding to a syrupy solution of zinc chloride, potassium iodide and iodine to saturation; the pollen is colored yellow by this reagent, lycopodium is not colored; the other reagent is methyl-green, which colors pollen green, but does not color lycopodium. (Ph. Centralh., 1896, 527.)

Uses. Lycopodium was formerly used as an absorbent application to excoriated surfaces, but has been largely replaced by other dusting powders. Its chief employment is in pharmacy for the purpose of facilitating the rolling of the pilular mass, and of preventing the adhesion of the pills when formed. The club moss itself (under the titles of Herba Lycopodii or Herba Musci Clavati) has been esteemed diuretic and antispasmodic; its decoction has been employed in rheumatism, diseases of the lungs and kidneys, but it has fallen into complete desuetude. One of the ingenious uses for lycopodium in microscopy is to mix a little of it with an unknown powder or on a slide on which a mount is made. The spores are easily recognizable and distinguishable from other elements and give an excellent idea of the approximate size of the elements which are being observed, 'as the spores are almost uniformly 40 microns in size.

Potters New Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations 1988. (British)

CLUBMOSS Lycopodium clavatum L.
Fam. Lycopodiaceae
Synonyms: Lycopodium Seed, Vegetable Sulphur.
Habitat: Central and Northern Europe including Northern Britain, and many other places.
Description: Stem woody, slender, elongated, with a few lateral, forked branches, and a few scattered, whitish roots below. Leaves crowded and scale-like, hair-tipped. Spore cases in spikes borne on erect forked, club-shaped branches, at right angles to the prostrate stem. Spores yellow, somewhat triangular, forming a mobile powder which floats on water without being wetted.
Part Used: Plant and spores.
Constituents: Alkaloids, about 0.1-0.2%, of which the major one is lycopodine; with clavatine, clavatoxine, nicotine and many others. Polyphenolic acids including dihydrocaffeic, Flavonoids including apigenin, Miscellaneous; triterpenes.
Medicinal Use: Sedative. It has been used for urinary disorders, in the treatment of spasmodic retention of urine, catarrhal cystitis and chronic kidney disorders, and as a gastric sedative in indigestion and gastritis. However the alkaloids can be toxic and should be used with care. Lycopodine produces uterine contractions and stimulates peristalsis in the small intestine in rodents

Boerricke�s Homoeopathic Materia Medica.

This drug is inert until the spores are crushed. Its wonderful medicinal properties are only disclosed by trituration and succussion. In nearly all cases where Lycopodium is the remedy, some evidence of urinary or digestive disturbance will be found. Corresponds to Grauvogle's carbo-nitrogenoid constitution, the non-eliminative lithaemic.

Lycopodium is adapted more especially to ailments gradually developing, functional power weakening, with failures of the digestive powers, where the function of the liver is seriously disturbed. Atony. Malnutrition. Mild temperament" of lymphatic constitution, with catarrhal tendencies; older persons, where the skin shows yellowish spots, earthy complexion, uric acid diathesis, etc.; also precocious, weakly children. Symptoms characteristically run from right to left, acts especially on right side of body, and are worse from about 4 to 8 p.m.

In kidney affections, red sand in urine, backache, in renal region; worse before urination. Intolerant of cold drinks; craves everything warm. Best adapted to persons intellectually keen, but of weak, muscular power. Deep-seated, progressive, chronic diseases. Carcinoma. Emaciation. Debility in morning. Marked regulating influence upon the glandular (sebaceous) secretions. Pre-senility. Ascites, in liver disease. Lycop. patient is thin, withered, full of gas and dry. Lacks vital heat; has poor circulation, cold extremities. Pains come and go suddenly. Sensitive to noise and odors.

Mind. � Melancholy; afraid to be alone. Little things annoy. Extremely sensitive. Averse to undertaking new things. Headstrong and haughty when sick. Loss of self-confidence. Hurried when eating. Constant fear of breaking down under stress. Apprehensive. Weak memory, confused thoughts; spells or writes wrong words and syllables. Failing brain-power. [Anac.; Pkos.; Baryt.] Cannot bear to see anything new. Cannot read what he writes. Sadness in morning on awaking.

Head. � Shakes head without apparent cause. Twists face and mouth. Pressing headache on vertex; worse from 4 to 8 p. m., and from lying down or stooping, if not eating regularly. [Cact.] Throbbing headache after every paroxysm of coughing. Headaches over eyes in severe colds; better, uncovering. [Sulph.] Vertigo in morning on rising. Pain in temples, as if they were screwed toward each other. Tearing pain in occiput; better, fresh air. Great falling out of hair. Eczema; moist oozing behind ears. Deep furrows on forehead. Premature baldness and gray hair.

Eyes. � Styes on lids near internal canthus. Day blindness. [Bothrops.] Night-blindness more characteristic. Sees only one-half of an object. Ulceration and redness of lids. Eyes half open during sleep.

� Thick, yellow, offensive discharge. Eczema about and behind ears. Otorrhoea and deafness with or without tinnitus; after scarlatina. Humming and roaring with hardness of hearing; every noise causes peculiar echo in ear.

Nose. � Sense of smell very acute. Feeling of dryness posteriorly. Scanty excoriating, discharge anteriorly. Ulcerated nostrils. Crusts and elastic plugs. [Kal. b.; Teuc.] Fluent coryza. Nose stopped up. Snuffles; child starts from sleep rubbing nose. Fan-like motion of alae nasi. [Kali.brom.; Phos.]

Face. � Grayish-yellow color of face, with blue circles around eyes. Withered, shriveled, and emaciated; copper-colored eruption. Dropping of lower jaw, in typhoid fever. [Lach.; Opium.] Itching; scaly herpes in face and corner of mouth.

Mouth. � Teeth excessively painful to touch. Toothache, with swelling of cheeks; relieved by warm application. Dryness of mouth and tongue, without thirst. Tongue dry, black, cracked, swollen; oscillates to and fro. Mouth waters. Blisters on tongue. Bad odor from mouth.

Throat. � Dryness of throat, without thirst. Food and drink regurgitates through nose. Inflammation of throat, with stitches on swallowing; better, warm drinks. Swelling and suppuration of tonsils. Ulceration of tonsils, beginning on right sale. Diphtheria; deposits spread from right to left; worse, cold drinks. Ulceration of vocal bands. Tubercular laryngitis, especially when ulceration commences.

Stomach. � Dyspepsia due to farinaceous and fermentable food, cabbage, beans, etc. Excessive hunger. Aversion to bread, etc. Desire for sweet things. Food tastes sour. Sour eructation�s. Great weakness of digestion. Bulimia, with much bloating. After eating, pressure in stomach, with bitter taste in mouth. Eating ever so little creates fullness. Cannot eat oysters. Rolling of flatulence. [Chin.; Carb.] Wakes at night feeling hungry. Hiccough. Incomplete burning eructation�s rise only to pharynx, there burn for hours. Likes to take food and drink hot. Sinking sensation; worse night.

Abdomen. � Immediately after a light meal, abdomen is bloated, full. Constant sense of fermentation in abdomen, like yeast working; upper left side. Hernia, right side. Liver sensitive. Brown spots on abdomen. Dropsy, due to hepatic disease. Hepatitis, atrophic form of nutmeg liver. Pain shooting across lower abdomen from right to left.

Stool. � Diarrhoea. Inactive intestinal canal. Ineffectual urging. Stool hard, difficult, small, incomplete. Hemorrhoids; very painful to touch, aching. [Mur. ac.]

Urine. � Pain in back before urinating; ceases after flow; slow in coming, must strain. Retention. Polyuria during the night. Heavy red sediment. Child cries before urinating. [Bor.]

Male. � No erectile power; impotence. Premature emission. [Calad.; Sel.; Agn.] Enlarge prostate. Condylomata.

Female. � Menses too late; last too long, too profuse. Vagina dry. Coition painful. Right ovarian pain. Varicose veins of pudenda. Leucorrhea, acrid, with burning in vagina. Discharge of blood from genitals during stool.

Respiratory. � Tickling cough. Dyspnosa. Tensive, constrictive, burning pain in chest. Cough worse going down hill. Cough deep, hollow. Expectorations gray, thick, bloody, purulent, salty. [Ars.; Phos.; Puls.] Night cough, tickling as from Sulphur fumes. Catarrh of the chest in infants, seems full of mucus rattling. Neglected pneumonia, with great dyspnoea, flaying of alae nasae and presence of mucous rales.

Heart. � Aneurism. [Baryta carb.] Aortic disease. Palpitation at night. Cannot lie on left side.

Back. � Burning between scapulae as of hot coals. Pain in email of back.

Extremities. � Numbness, also drawing and tearing in limbs, especially while at rest or at night. Heaviness of arms. Tearing in shoulder and elbow joints. One foot hot, the other cold. Chronic gout, with chalky deposits in joints. Profuse sweat of the feet. Pain in heel on treading as from a pebble. Painful callosities on soles; toes and fingers contracted. Sciatica, worse right side. Cannot lie on painful side. Hands and feet numb. Right foot hot, left cold. Cramps in calves and toes at night in bed. Limbs go to sleep. Twitching and jerking.

Fever. � Chill between 3 and 4 p. m., followed by sweat. Icy coldness. Feels as if lying on ice. One chill is followed by another. (Cede.; Sil.; Hep.]

Sleep. � Drowsy during day. Starting in sleep. Dreams of accidents.

Skin. � Ulcerates. Abscesses beneath skin; worse warm applications. Hives; worse, warmth. Violent itching; fissured eruptions. Acne. Chronic eczema associated with urinary, gastric and hepatic disorders; bleeds easily. Skin becomes thick and indurated. Varicose veins, narvi, erectile tumors. Brown spots, freckles worse on left side of face and nose. Dry, shrunken, especially palms; hair becomes prematurely gray. Dropsies. Offensive secretions; viscid and offensive perspiration, especially of feet and axilla. Psoriasis.

Modalities. � Worse, right side, from right to left, from above downward, 4 to 8 p. m.; from heat or warm room, hot air, bed. Warm applications, except throat and stomach which are better from warm drinks. Better, by motion, after midnight, from warm food and drink, on getting cold, from being uncovered.

Relationship. � Complementary: Lycop. acts with special benefit after Calcar. and Sulphur. lod.; Graphites; Lach.; Chelidon.

Antidotes: Camph.; Puls.; Caust.

Compare: Carbo-Nitrogenoid Constitution: Sulphur; Rhus; Urtica; Mercur.; Hepar. Alumina. (Lycop. is the only vegetable that takes up aluminum. T. F. Allen.) Ant. c.; Nat.m.; Bry.; Nux; Bothrops (day-blindness; can scarcely see after sunrise; pain in right great toe).- Plumbago littoralis � A Brazilian plant�(Costive with red urine, pain in kidneys and joints and body generally; milky saliva, ulcerated mouth). Hydrast. follows Lycop. in indigestion.

Dose. � Both the lower and the highest potencies are credited with excellent results. For purposes of aiding elimination the second and third attenuation of the Tincture, a few drops, 3 times a day, have proved efficacious, otherwise the 6th to 200th potency, and higher, in not too frequent doses.

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