Part 1.
By H.F.Macmillan, F.L.S; A.H.R.H.S.
Compiled and Edited by Ivor Hughes






Tobacco ; Dhum-kola, S; Poyile, T.
The tobacco of commerce in its various forms consists of the dried and cured leaves of varieties of Nicotiana Tabacum, a native of Tropical America and belonging to the Potato family (Solanaceae). The custom of smoking, introduced by Sir Walter Raleigh into England from America in 1585, is now universal. The plant is an erect annual, growing 5 - 6 ft. or more in height and bearing large, lanceolate, alternate leaves, characterised by viscous glandular hairs. It thrives in a tropical, sub-tropical, or warm temperate climate, and among the chief producing countries are : Cuba, S. United States, S. America, Egypt, Sumatra and S. Africa. The finest of all tobaccos is said to be produced in Cuba.

Tobacco-growing forms a minor industry in Ceylon (some 13,000 acres), chiefly in the drier parts, the produce being largely used locally for chewing with betel and for local cheroots, but mainly for export to S. India.

Cultivation. The best soil for Tobacco is alluvial or sandy loam, rich in potash, lime and humus ; stiff clay or gravelly soil is unsuitable. A warm humid climate with a well-defined dry season is best, the latter being necessary for harvesting. Flat or only slightly undulating land is desirable. The plant is a gross feeder, requiring good cultivation and liberal manuring. Cattle manure is considered by some the best, except when special qualities, as fine wrapper, is desired.

Propagation is by seed, which is very small and should be sown in boxes under cover, or on smooth and covered beds. An ounce of seed should produce more than sufficient plants for an acre. 1 oz. contains about 400,000 seeds, but a considerable proportion are usually sterile. When sowing, it should be mixed with sifted ashes or fine dry earth so as to enable its being sown evenly and thinly. The seedlings are planted out when quite small, that is at 6 � 8 weeks after sowing, when they should be 3 - 4 in. high.

Planting out should be done late in the afternoon, spacing being about 3 X 2� ft., or 6,200 plants to the acre, close spacing being desired for the production of fine qualities. The young plants are delicate and should be shaded with small twigs, fern-fronds, or grass, also watered, if the weather be dry, until well established, after which no shade of any kind is required. In about 5-6 weeks from planting, the flower buds will appear at the top of the plants ; these as well as any side-buds must be nipped off, the operation being known as "suckering" ("disbudding"), which has the effect of concentrating vigour in the leaves. The plants are then topped, leaving about 14 leaves to each, more or less according to the vigour of the plant. Moulding, or earthing up the plants, becomes necessary when the latter are about 3 weeks old. Irrigation once or twice a week or oftener may be necessary where the climate is dry.

Harvesting. About 3 - 4 months after the germination of the seed, the first leaves should be ready for cutting, this being indicated by their turning a yellowish - green with brown spots, the edges and tips curling downwards. Cutting should not be done when rain is on the leaves, nor when the sun is hottest. There are two methods of harvesting :

(1) The whole plant may be cut near the ground when most of the leaves are mature, the stems with leaves attached being left on the ground for a few hours, so that the leaves may become pliable and less liable to be torn or broken ;

(2) the leaves are cut separately as they mature, the two lower being removed at each round, say once in 5 or 6 days. Under good cultivation the plants should produce about 15 leaves each ; the number may, however, be as much as 20 or more. Generally speaking the first 6 or 8 leaves form the best quality and are preferred for " wrappers " ; the second lot middle quality; and the top leaves third, the latter being used for "filler" or "chewing" tobacco. The grades are kept separate. After the plants are cut down, a "rattoon" or "sucker" crop may be obtained.

Withering. The leaves being carried to the drying shed, they are threaded on a string fastened to a lath about 4 ft. long, each lath carrying 30 � 40 leaves. These are hung up in tiers in a specially constructed drying house to become partially dried. When the whole plants are cut down at once, the leaves are cut in pairs with a piece of the stem attached, and afterwards placed astride the drying lath. Drying or withering takes about 3 weeks, when the midrib becomes brown and soft.

Fermenting or Curing, a most important process, follows, and upon this the proper development of the narcotic principle of tobacco largely depends. The leaves are tied in small bundles of about 50, and placed in piles on a wooden floor covered with dry leaves or sacks, all the butt ends pointing outwards and the tips toward the centre. The pile is left for about 5 or 6 days to ferment, when the temperature will have reached about 125� F. The pile should be turned at intervals (" breaks ") of about 6 or 8 days for about 3 weeks, so as to equalise fermentation. Curing should be finished in about 22 days, but 5 - 6 weeks more are often allowed to complete the process of fermenting and drying.

Grading. The leaves are sorted according to length, colour, texture, etc. Various types of leaf are recognised, each being adapted to special requirements of the trade, as for wrapper, binder, filler, chewing, etc. Different qualities are often dependent on special conditions of soil and climate, as well as on specific characters of the plant. Wrapper-leaf for cigars should be thin, silky, almost tasteless, with the midrib removed ; whilst for filler purposes a heavy succulent leaf is preferred.

Yield. 800 � 900 lb. of cured leaf per acre is a fair average yield, though in some cases it is as much as 1,200 � 1,400 lb. In Ceylon the average yield is probably not more than about 650 lb. per acre. In India the yield is reckoned in maunds, about 1,000 leaves forming a maund (80 lb.).

Varieties. There are numerous varieties in cultivation, each producing country having stabilised special types. In Ceylon, " Jaffna " and " Dumbara " are regarded as distinct sorts, of which there are again recognised forms, as " Netti-dhunkola " and "Kon-dhunkola." In Jaffna, tobacco is produced under partial irrigation, the water being raised from wells by means of "well sweeps" "White Burley," valued especially for high quality cigarettes, has given good results in Ceylon, also "Mexican," a filler variety. Other well-known sorts are " Zimmer Spanish " (filler tobacco), " Virginian dark-leaf," " Sumatra," " Turkish," etc.

Buchu. (Rutaceae.) �A hardy evergreen shrub, native of S. Africa, where it is officially protected. The aromatic leaves yield a volatile greenish oil, used as a diuretic and for kidney trouble. These are furnished by three species, viz. : Barosma serratifolia (Kloof Buchu), B. crenulata, and B. betulina (Mountain Buchu). The last-named is the best. Buchu leaves are quoted in London at about 1s.6d.- 2s. per lb.

Cassia Fistula. Purging Cassia ; Pudding Pipe; Ehela, S. The long, cylindrical, black or brown pods, 1� - 2 ft. long, are valued in medicine for their laxative properties, and exported from Java and the W. Indies (chiefly Dominica), being valued in London at about 25s. per cwt. The bark of the tree is esteemed in native medicine in India and Ceylon.

Cinchona, Peruvian - or Quinine-Bark � also known as Jesuits' Bark. The alkaloids quinine, cinchonine, cinchonidine and quinidine are obtained from the bark of several species of Cinchona (Rubiaceae), which are small, erect trees, 25 - 40 ft. high, natives of S. America, chiefly Ecuador and Peru. The valuable curative effects of quinine in malarial fevers were first made known in 1638, when a preparation of the bark cured the Countess of Cinchon, wife of the then Viceroy of Peru, of malaria, the plant being afterwards named in her honour. Cinchona was introduced into India, Java and Ceylon in 1861. The Ceylon Government having established nurseries for it at Hakgala (now Botanic Gardens), issuing plants free of charge or at a nominal price, the planters took up its cultivation commercially in 1870.

The area under the product rose rapidly from 500 acres in 1872 to 64,000 acres in 1883, the export of bark at its maximum output (1887) being nearly 16,000,000 lb. The result was great over-production and a drop in the price of the drug from 15s. to 1s.3d. per oz. an immense boon to the public, but a disaster to the planters. The present price is about 2s.6d. per oz. Cinchona bark has now practically disappeared from Ceylon's export list, and Java is the chief producing country. The Japanese have recently taken up its cultivation in Formosa. There are also plantations in India and Burma, worked by Government chiefly for the benefit of the peasants, to whom the drug is supplied in small packets at cost price.

Cultivation. The plant thrives best in a rich humous soil on a porous subsoil, preferring a cool mountainous or sub-tropical climate with a good rainfall (about 100 in. or more). C. succirubra is an exception and thrives at somewhat lower elevations and in a wanner climate. Propagation may be by cuttings, layering, or seed, the latter method being usually adopted. The seed is very minute, and should be sown thinly in boxes or on smooth nursery beds under cover, finely sifted soil being sprinkled over the surface before and after sowing. Watering should be done carefully through a fine rose. In about 3 weeks from sowing, the seedlings should be up, and when 2 in. high these should be transplanted to well-prepared nursery beds, so as to harden them, the shade being gradually reduced; when 8 - 9 in. high they may be planted out in their permanent places. Spacing may vary according to variety and locality. Close planting (4x4 ft.) at first, and gradually thinning out the weaker plants until only about half the original number are left, is considered preferable to wider planting at the commencement. The uprooted trees afford a return, the bark being stripped from the stem and roots. Root-bark is considered the most valuable.

Harvesting. To obtain the bark, different methods are employed :

(1) lopping, by which the branches are lopped and the bark removed;

(2) coppicing, the trees being cut down to the ground when about 6 years old, and the stems barked ; this induces the production of other stems from the root which in turn are cut down and barked;

(3) shaving the stem by means of a spoke-shave, care being taken not to reach the cambium ; only two sides of a tree are shaved at once ;

(4) mossing, after the bark of trees 7 or 8 years old is removed in alternate strips, each 1� in. wide, the stem is protected by a covering of moss tied on ; thus in about 2 years the renewed bark, which is richer in quinine than the first bark, is again ready for removal. Of these, the second and third methods are the most generally adopted on plantations. The peeled bark is dried gradually in the sun, and exported in bales, the various forms being kept separate, as "root-bark," "flat-bark," "quill-bark," and " shavings." 600 lb. of dry bark per acre a year, or 2 lb. per tree (at 7 years old), is considered a good average yield.

Species, etc. C. succirubra (Red Bark), a tree 40 - 50 ft. high or more, with large, broad leaves; is hardy, easily established, suited to a wide range of climate, and semi-naturalised on some up-country estates in Ceylon; C. officinalis (Crown Bark), a slender tree, 20 - 30 ft. high, with small, narrow leaves; C. Calisaya (Yellow Bark), a valuable species, with a stout stem when full grown, not easily established; C. Ledgeriana (Ledger's Bark), especially rich in quinine, but the tree is comparatively small and best suited to medium elevations ; it is rather delicate and requires special care in the young state; largely grown on Government cinchona plantations, Bengal. To these may be added certain superior hybrids. Cinchona substitutes include Cascarilla Bark (Croton Eluteria), Cuprea Bark (Remijia spp.), Angostura Bark (Galipea officinalis), and Bitter Bark (Petalostigma sp.) (q.v.).

Coca or Cocaine-plant; (Erythroxylum Coca. Erythroxylaceae.) A small shrub, 6 - 10 ft. high, indigenous to Peru and Bolivia and found at elevations of 4,000-5,000 ft., introduced to Ceylon in 1870. Extensively cultivated in its native habitat, where the leaves are commonly used as a stimulant and masticatory or exported for the extraction of the alkaloid cocaine. The plant thrives at elevations of 1,000 - 3,000 ft. in Ceylon, where small areas were successfully established until its cultivation was prohibited in the British colonies n 1914. It is still without restriction in other countries.

Cultivation. The plant thrives in ordinarily good friable soil, with a humid atmosphere and an evenly distributed rainfall not under 75 or 80 in. Shade is not essential after the plants are well established. The seed, which is rather difficult to germinate, must be sown fresh, preferably under cover and in plant-baskets, the seedlings being afterwards planted out at distances of about 5 X 4 ft. In S. America, a method sometimes adopted in germinating the seed is to place them when fresh in a heap covered with wet sacks, thus setting up initial fermentation, being afterwards sown in the field in situ; in other cases they are sown at once in the field, 4 - 5 seeds to the hole, the ground being then covered with grass-litter or leaves, and the seedlings afterwards thinned out as desired.

Harvesting. The first plucking of leaves may be obtained when the plants are about 2� years old from seed. Several pluckings are afterwards made in the year, the mature leaves only being, as far as practicable, selected. These are best dried in the shade, as in open airy sheds, so as to retain their green colour as much as possible. Sun-dried leaves become too shriveled, lose a large proportion of their alkaloids, and therefore command a lower price. The dried leaves are said to be best packed for export in zinc-lined, air-tight cases. Usually, however, the dried twigs with leaves (the bushes being clipped with shears) are made up in pressed bales, which are covered with hessian, for export. An annual return of about 1,500 - 2,000 lb. or more dried leaf per acre may be obtained, and the shrubs will continue to yield for several years.

In the native home of the plant the leaves are, as already stated, very largely used as a masticatory, being chewed with a little unslaked lime; the immediate effect is said to be a " gentle excitement with sensations of high enjoyment, lessening the desire for food and enabling the consumer to undergo considerable fatigue." The leaves are also sometimes infused as tea, the infusion being taken as a stimulating drink. Since the restrictions of opium consumption in India, cocaine has occasionally been smuggled into that country for use as a substitute for opium. The value of the dried leaves, though largely judged by appearance, depends on their percentage of alkaloid. It is estimated that 100 lb. of dry leaf should yield about 1 lb. of alkaloid, which is usually valued at 30s.- 40s. per oz. The price of the dried leaf fluctuates, according to quality and demand, from about 1s.- 1s. 6d. per lb. in London.

The export of Coca leaves from Ceylon in 1911 was 1,432 cwt. Since the prohibition of the cultivation of the plant in British colonies, the area under the product in Java has more than trebled, the chief buyers being Great Britain and the United States.

Varieties. Two forms of Coca leaves are recognised in commerce, viz. " Huanuco " or Bolivian Coca (Erythroxylum Coca), and " Truxillo " or Peruvian Coca (E. truxillense). The former was grown in Ceylon and became known on the market as " Ceylon Huanuco," whilst the latter is the type usually cultivated in Java. The leaves of an allied species (E. lucidum) Bata-kirilla, a large shrub of Ceylon, are used by the natives in medicine (q.v.), but they have shown no interest in Coca leaves.

Calumba or Colombo-root. (Jateorhiza palmata. Menispermaceae.) A climber with palmate leaves, producing annual herbaceous stems, native of Mozambique and the Zambesi region. The fleshy tuberous roots, produced in clusters and yellow in section, are commonly used by the local inhabitants as a remedy for dysentery. Cut across into slices and dried, they are exported, being used in European medicine for their tonic and astringent properties, and now quoted at about 27s. per cwt. The common name is considered to have been derived from the fact that the root was first imported into Europe through Colombo. The plant was introduced at Peradeniya about 1890, but failed to" become established. Efforts made in 1805 and at other dates to introduce it into Bengal, Bombay, etc. also failed.

False (or Ceylon) Calumba-root. Weni-wel, S. (Coscinium fenestratum. Menispermaceae.) A woody climber with smooth bark, large roundish leaves with prominent 5-7 nerves, native of Ceylon and Malacca. The wood is of bright yellow colour, and is valued as a bitter tonic by the Sinhalese ; it is also used as a cure for tetanus, and a yellow dye is obtained from it. The stems, cut into transverse slices or in short lengths, are sometimes exported from Ceylon. They can be distinguished from the true article by the sections being flat on the surface (not depressed) and woody, instead of being starchy as in Jateorhiza.

Croton-Oil ; Purging Croton ; Jayapala, S.� This powerful purgative and vesicant, commonly used in medicine, is extracted from the seed of Croton Tiglium (Euphorbiaceae), a small tree, native of India and China and suited to a moist tropical climate, up to 2,000 ft. It is not particular as to soil, and may be cultivated as a pure crop or as an intercrop, as with Cacao or Coffee, at the same time affording shade. It begins to bear in 3 years after planting, yielding 2 or 3 cwt. of seed per acre. When in full bearing, at the age of about 6 years, the yield may be 6-8 cwt. or more. The market value of the seed fluctuates considerably, the demand being very irregular.

Cubebs. (Piper Cubeba. Piperaceae.) The cubebs of commerce, of importance chiefly in medicine, are the berries of a species of a pepper-vine, easily distinguished from the ordinary pepper by the stalked and rather larger berries or " corns." The plant is indigenous to Java, Sumatra, etc., and was introduced to Ceylon in 1885. It thrives under similar conditions as Pepper, requiring live or artificial supports and a certain amount of shade. The demand for cubebs is limited and supplied by Java, where the plant is cultivated. The crop thrives at Peradeniya, where the vines are grown on trees of Erythrina indica and bear fruit freely. Propagation is by cuttings taken from the top or fruitful shoots, the plants thus raised being more productive than those taken from near the base.

Ginseng. The Chinese name for Aralia (Panax) quinquefolia. (Araliaceae.) A small herbaceous plant with palmate leaves, native of China, cultivated as a Government monopoly in Korea, where the dried root forms one of the principal articles of export to China. The crop is grown under the protection of a light framework, and the roots are prepared for export by steaming for about 4 hrs. in wicker baskets placed over boiling water. Ginseng root is highly valued in China as a tonic and stimulant, and is sometimes sold at from " 250 to 500 times its weight in silver." Chinese doctors ascribe miraculous powers to it, possibly from its supposed resemblance to the human form, claiming that it wards off disease and restores exhausted animal powers, even " making old people young." The root is slightly bitter and aromatic, but is disregarded in European medicine. A form of Ginseng is furnished by a similar species found in N. America which is cultivated to some extent in the U. States, where the roots have been sold at from 2 to 4 dollars per pound for export to China as a substitute for the Eastern product.

This variety is ranked by the Chinese as third or fourth quality, next to which being Japanese Ginseng, which is the least esteemed. The best quality is " Manchurian Imperial," next to which is the "Red Ginseng" of Korea. The plant thrives in rich, friable soil and requires light shade as well as a moderate amount of moisture.

Ipecacuanha. (Cephadis Ipecacuanha. Rubiaceae; sometimes placed under the generic names Psychotria or Uragoga.) A small perennial herb with semi-creeping stems, 12-16 in. high, indigenous to dense humid forests of Brazil. From its annulated roots an alkaloid (emetine) is obtained which is valued in medicine as an emetic, also as a specific for amoebic dysentery and as a stomachic tonic.

Cultivation, yield, etc. The plant is of very slow growth and does not respond readily to cultivation. The best conditions for it are a moist and hot climate, permanent shade, protection from strong winds, and a humous and well-drained soil. In planting, the ground should be dug to a depth of at least 15-18 in. and well broken up near the surface.

Propagation is by roots or stem-cuttings, rarely by seed. It is best to plant in slightly raised beds, spacing being about 10 X 10 in. The roots are ready for harvesting about 2J years from planting, and the yield may average from 2 to 3 oz. of marketable root per plant. The plants should be carefully dug from the ground, the roots thoroughly washed and dried in shade. The supply of the root comes chiefly from the forests of Brazil, and is said to be sometimes adulterated with other roots of similar appearance. England alone takes 60,000 lb. a year of the root, which fluctuates in price from about 5s. to 6s. or more per lb. The Ipecacuanha plant, first introduced to Ceylon in 1866, thrives in Heneratgoda Botanic Gardens, near sea-level, under the natural shade of jungle. It is sometimes grown successfully on rubber plantations In Malaya, where it has been estimated to give a yield of at least 50-60 lb. of roots per acre every second or third year.

Ipecacuanha substitutes. 
Nux-vomica. Goda-kaduru, S; Kanchurai, T; Kuchla of India. (Strychnos Nux-vomica. Loganiaceae.) � A moderate-sized tree with opposite, shiny, 5-nerved leaves, indigenous to Ceylon (chiefly in forests of the dry region), India, and Burma.

The flat, circular, ash-grey, poisonous seeds, produced chiefly from August to November, are collected from forest trees and exported, being the source of the alkaloids strychnine and brucine, both powerful poisons, but valued in medicine as a tonic and stimulant. Ceylon and S. India are the chief, if not the only, sources of supply. 1,307 cwt. of the seeds were exported from Ceylon in 1923, valued at Rs. 22,053 (= about 21s. per cwt.). The seeds are now quoted in London at about 14s. per cwt. The globular fruit is of the size of a small orange, yellow when ripe, and contains a mass of soft pulp, upon which monkeys and certain birds feed. (See Poisonous Plants.)

Opium, a well-known and valuable narcotic drug, the history of which dates back to B.C., is obtained from the milky juice of the unripe fruit capsules of the Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum. Papaveraceae), an annual herb, native of India and Asia Minor, where, as well as in China, it is extensively cultivated under official control.

The drug is obtained by making slight incisions in the green, unripe fruit, from which the milky-white juice exudes; this should be done in dry weather, in the evening ; by the morning the juice will have coagulated on the fruit, and is then collected and made into balls, which form the ordinary opium of commerce. From this, morphia, the active principle, is obtained.

The yield of opium under cultivation averages about 20 lb. per acre. The price of the article fluctuates considerably, as from about 15s. to 30s. or more per lb., according to purity, etc. The small seed is sown in drills 2 ft. apart, afterwards allowing 9 in. between the plants in the drills. The plants blossom in 2�-3 months from planting. The petals are removed from the flowers, and about 12 or 15 days later the fruit capsules are ready for " tapping," as above described, for the collection of opium.

There are two distinct varieties of the Opium-poppy, viz., var. glabra, which furnishes medicinal opium (morphia, etc.) and is grown chiefly in Turkey and Persia ; and var. alba, which is cultivated mainly in India and China and furnishes the opium used for eating, drinking, or smoking. Considerable restrictions have in recent years been placed on the consumption of opium in Eastern countries, and only registered consumers can now be supplied with the article, except as prescribed by a medical man. A large number of people, however, take the drug habitually.

Peppermint. (Mentha piperita. Labiatae.) An erect perennial herb, 1 ft. high, with a strong aromatic odour, cultivated in Europe and elsewhere for Peppermint oil. This is distilled from the shoots and leaves, is largely used in confectionery and medicine, being antiseptic, stimulant and carminative. It is also used in perfumery, and is the chief ingredient in a well-known liqueur. Menthol, a white crystalline substance used in numerous preparations, is obtained from the oil. M. arvensis furnishes Japanese Peppermint, which is similarly employed. The oil is quoted in London at 4s., and menthol at about 10s. per lb.

Sarsaparilla.� A drug used especially for rheumatism, gout, etc., obtained from the roots of various species of Smilax (Liliaceae), which are climbing plants, characterised by more or less prickly stems and large, ovate, 3-nerved leaves, found in a wild state in the W. Indies, Mexico, etc. Smilax officinale furnishes the Jamaica Sarsaparilla, while other species supply the Brazilian and Mexican product. The former thrives at Peradeniya, Ceylon, where it was introduced in 1880. Several species of Smilax are indigenous to the moist region of Ceylon, up to about 4,000 ft., but none of these appears to be used medicinally.

Propagated by suckers or seed. The collection of Sarsaparilla is effected by scraping away the earth from the roots, which run horizontally under the ground; when laid bare, these are cut off near the crown, a few slender roots being allowed to remain to assist the plant in carrying on its growth. The collected roots are then dried and packed in bundles for export. Jamaica Sarsaparilla is now quoted in London at Is. 6d per lb.

Indian Sarsaparilla ; Iramusu, S. (Hemidesmus indicus. Asclepiadeae.) A small, slender, twining plant, found wild in the moist low-country of Ceylon, also in India, etc. The roots are much used as a tonic, being included in the British and Indian pharmacopoeias.

Senna (Pods or Leaves).� The dried pods or leaves of certain species of Cassia are much used in medicine for their mild laxative properties.

Alexandrian Senna, the best known in commerce, is furnished by C, acutifolia, cultivated in Sudan, etc. and formerly exported from Alexandria but now from Port Sudan. The next best is Tinnevelly Senna (C. angustifolia), cultivated to some extent in S. India. Both are shrubby plants, about 3 ft. high, native of Arabia, Sudan, etc. C. obovata of N. Africa furnishes an inferior senna and has become naturalised in Jamaica. The unripe pods are now mostly used instead of the leaves. The former are now quoted at about 2s. 6d. per lb. in London, and the latter at about 4d.-6d. The yield of senna-leaves per acre in S. India has been estimated at 700-900 lb. a year.

Tamarind.�The brownish pods, containing a mass of sweetish acid brown pulp, form the " Tamarind " of commerce, which is largely used in tile preparation of cooling beverages, also in European as well as in native medicine and as a seasoning for chutneys, preserves, etc. The pulp is pressed and preserved in large masses, being commonly sold in the kaddies or bazaars by weight. In the north of Ceylon it is made into a brine for preserving fish. The principal season for the fruit is January-February.

Thymol.�A valuable antiseptic crystalline substance, quoted  at 6s. per lb., obtained from Ajowan or Ajava-oil, which is derived from the " seeds " (small fruits) of Carum copticum (Umbelliferae), a small herb. The latter is cultivated in India, more especially in Bengal, as a cold-weather crop. The seeds are used in India as a condiment and in medicine, being valued as a cure for indigestion. They are quoted at from 40s. to 50s. per cwt. Thymol is used for hookworm, etc.

Artemisia Absinthium. (Compositae.) Wormwood.� An oil distilled from it is used medicinally and formerly formed the chief ingredient in the French liqueur Absinthe, now prohibited. A. Abrotanum is the highly fragrant shrub known as " Southern Wood."

Asafoetida. (Ferulafoetida. Umbelliferae.) � A herb, plant of Persia and N. India. The tuberous root yields a gum-resin with an offensive odour; exported in small lumps and used in medicine as a stimulant; also used in Persia as a condiment.

Canella Bark; White-, Wild-, or Jamaica Cinnamon. (Canella winteriana.) � Bark exported from Bahamas for use in medicine.

Cascara-sagrada.(Rhamnus purshiana and R. calif arnica. Rhamnaceae.) � N. American shrubs. Extract from bark forms a well-known aperient. Bark 2-3 years old or more commands the highest price, being quoted in London at 31s. or more per cwt.

Cascarilla Bark. (Croton Cascarilla and C. Eleuteria. Euphorbiaceae.) � Shrubs or small trees of the Bahamas. The aromatic bark is a well-known bitter tonic, without astringency. C. nivzus, Copalchi Bark. Venezuela. Used as a drug.

Cassia beariana. (Caesalpineae.) � Small tree of Cent. Africa, where the roots are used by the natives as a cure for black-water fever.

Cedron Seeds. (Simaba Cedron. Simarubaceae.) � A small tree of Cent. America. Seeds exported for rued, purposes, being febrifuge, tonic, and sedative.

Conessi Bark. (Holarrhena antidysenterica. Apocynaceae.) � Small tree of India and Burma. Leaves, fruit, seeds and bark used medicinally, the latter especially being valued in the treatment of dysentery.

Cusparia Bark. (Galipea officinalis. Rutaceae.) � A Brazilian tree, 15-20 ft. high. The bark yields an aromatic bitter tonic, and was formerly used in place of Cinchona bark.

False Jalap, Turbith or Turpeth, is furnished by Ipomoea Turpethum (q.v.).

Ficus doliana and F. laurifolia. Extract from bark used in Brazil, Venezuela, etc., for hookworm (anchylostomiasis).

Ganja, Bhang, Charas, Kansa, Dagga (S. Africa).(Cannabis sativa. Moraceae.) � A dioecious annual, 4-6 ft. high or more, the leaves, stems, and inflorescence of which are strongly narcotic and often used in the tropics as a drug or stimulant, being smoked with tobacco or in cigarettes, etc. The narcotic principle is a gum-resin, developed to greatest extent in the unfertilised flowers of the female plant, so that when grown for the drug the male plants are pulled up as soon as they can be distinguished.

The drug occurs in several forms, as ganja (consisting of the pressed flowering tops), bhang (leaves and flowering shoots together), and charas (the gum-resin found on the stems). The latter is the most powerful. An intoxicating liquor (hashish) is also prepared from the plant.

The drug has a hypnotic or sedative effect like that of opium. In small portions it produces excitement, passing into delirium and catalepsy with increasing quantities. The names given to the plant indicate " leaf of delusion," " increaser of pleasure," and " cementer of friendship." Its cultivation is subject to stringent restriction in most tropical countries or to total prohibition in some, e.g. Ceylon.

The drug is often smuggled into Ceylon from India in compressed 1 lb. slabs, which fetch from Us. 40 to Rs. 150. These are cut up into small squares for retail dealers. Most addicts of the drug begin by appreciating its soothing effect after a hard day's work, and later become victims to its insidious demand.

Henbane. (Hyoscyamus niger. Solanaceae.) � Native of Europe, N.W. India, N. Africa, etc. Annual or biennial, 2�3 ft., narcotic and poisonous. Seeds, leaves and green tops yield the alkaloid hyoscyamine, used as a sedative, etc. Indian Henbane (H. muticus) has similar properties and is sometimes used in India for smoking.

Ipecacuanha, False.(Asclepias curassavica.) � An erect, perennial, semi-herbaceous shrub. Root emetic and cathartic, used in W. Indies for piles and gonorrhoea. The roots of lonidium Ipecacuanha (Violaceae), known in Brazil as " White Ipecacuanha," are also used as a substitute for ipecacuanha, while those of Tylophora asthmatica have similar properties.

Jaborandi. (Pilocarpus Jaborandi and P. pinnatifolius. Rutaceae.) � Shrubs with pinnate leaves, natives of Brazil. The dried leaves yield the alkaloid pilocarpine, used for medicinal purposes, being stimulant, diaphoretic and expectorant; also used for eye treatment.

Jalap. (Ipomoea purga. Convolvulaceae.) � Mexico. Climbing shrub, bearing tubercled roots which yield the powerful purgative known by this name. Requires rich humous soil with shade and a wet montane climate. A crop may be obtained every third year, yielding about 1,000 lb. dried tubercles, which are valued in London at about 1s. 6d. per lb. Cultivated in S. India for export.

Koso. (Brayera sp. Rosaceae.) � A shrub, the dried flowers of which are used in Abyssinia, Arabia, etc. as a purgative and for expelling tapeworm.

Macassar Kernels. (Brucea sumatrana. Simarubaceae.) Kaputu-gedi, S.� Slender shrub of Assam, Malaya, etc., 4-5 ft. high. Whole plant bitter. Seeds known as Macassar Kernels, much used in Java for dysentery. Nat. in Ceylon.

Manna of commerce. (Fraxinus Ornus. Oleaceae.) � A small ornamental tree of Asia Minor, etc. Yields a gummy exudation from incisions made in the stem which is valued in medicine as a mild laxative. " Manna " is also applied to a sweet powdery substance obtained from Alhagi maurorum, a leguminous shrub common in the deserts of Syria, Persia, etc. Tamarix Manna, a sweet powdery substance produced on the twigs of T. articulata (q.v.) by puncturing insects and collected by shaking the branches over a cloth.

Musenna or Bisenna-bark. (Albizzia anthelmintica.) � A small tree. Bark commonly used in Arabia, etc., as a vermifuge.

Myrrh ; Balsam of Mecca or Balsam of Gilead. (Commiphora Myrrha. Burseraceae.) � Stunted shrubs of Arabia and N. India. An oleo-resin from stems and shcrots used for medicine, incense and embalming.

Quassia Wood ; Bitter Wood. Quassia Chips. (Picraena excelsa. Simarubaceae.) � A fairly large tree of the W. Indies. Wood largely exported from Jamaica for use as a bitter tonic ; also used in insecticides and by brewers for hops.

Strophanthine ; Kombe. (Strophanthus hispidus.) � A climbing shrub of Cent. Africa. Extract from seed used for cardiac affections.

Withania Coagulans. Panibrand. (Solanaceae.) � A small herbaceous shrub. Fruits used in India to coagulate milk when rennet is objected to on religious grounds.

Worm-seed. (Chenopodium ambrosioides, = G. anthelminticum.) � Annual herb. Oil obtained from fruit heads used in hookworm (anchylostomiasis) treatment.

Part 2 here.