Martindale�s 24th Br.
Compiled and edited by Ivor Hughes.

Agar (B.P.C.). Agar-agar; Japanese Isinglass; Gelose; Colle du Japon.
Dose: 4 to 16 g. (60 to 240 grains).
Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In all pharmacopoeias examined except Belg.The solid residue obtained by concentrating a decoction prepared from various species of Gelidium and other algae belonging to the Rhodophycese. Thin, greyish-white, translucent strips or flakes, or yellowish flattened bands.
Soluble in boiling water; it swells to a gelatinous mass in cold water. A 1 % solution forms a stiff jelly on cooling.
Store in a dry place.
Agars from different sources have different gelling powers. New Zealand agar 0.7%, Australian agar 2%, or South African agar 1%, will usually yield gels equivalent in strength to that produced by 1 % of Japanese agar.

So-called agars, known as 'British agar' and 'Galway agar', are prepared chiefly from Chondrus crispus and Gigartina stellata (Gigartinaceae). The ash content of these 'agars' is usually very high. Indian agar obtained from Gracilaria confervoides is suitable for preparing culture media and for use as an emulsifying agent.� S. N. Bal et al., Pharm. J., ii/1946, 152.

Uses. Agar has little nutritive value; it is not digested and passes through the intestine almost unchanged, but it is useful for treating constipation, especially of the type in which the stools are hard and dry, since by taking up moisture it increases the volume of the fasces and promotes peristalsis. For this purpose it is best crushed into small pieces like bran. Clinical experience shows that finely powdered or even sand-like powder is not efficacious. Tea-spoonful doses, taken occasionally, of the dry substance in flake form sprinkled on a little moist food such as stewed fruit, act as a mild evacuant. Emulsions containing agar with liquid paraffin, phenolphthalein and magnesium hydroxide are also used but the small amount of agar in these has no therapeutic value.

Mucilago Agar (Dan. P.). Powdered agar 2 g., methyl hydroxybenzoate 1 g., water to 1000 g.

Althaea (B.P.C. 1949). Alth.; Marshmallow; Marshmallow Root; Racine de Guimauve; Eibischwurzel; Rafz de altea.
Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Belg., CM., Cz., Dan., Egyp., Fr., Ger., Hung., Jug., Mex., Nor., Pol, Span., Swed., and Swiss. Also in U.S.N.F. Althaea Leaf is included in Belg., Cz., Ger., Hung., Jug., Pol., and Swiss, and Althaea Flower in Belg. and Fr.
The dried peeled root of Althaea officinalis (Malvacete), collected in the autumn from plants at least 2 years' old and containing not less than 20% of water-soluble extractive. Protect from moisture.
Uses. Althaea is demulcent and emollient and was a popular remedy for irritation and inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth and pharynx. The leaves have been similarly used. The boiled and bruised root and also the flowers and leaves have been used as a poultice.

Species Pectorales (Ger. P.). Brusttee; Pectoral Tea. Althaea root 8, liquorice root 3, orris root 1, coltsfoot leaves 4, verbascum flowers 2, and anise 2. Used in the form of an infusion. Similar compound powders are included in several Continental pharmacopoeias.

Syr. Alth. (B.P.C. 1949). Syrup of Marshmallow. Macerate althaea 4 g. with water 56 ml. for 12 hours, strain, filter into a tared vessel, and dissolve sucrose 90 g. in the filtrate, heating to boiling; then allow to cool, replace any of the water lost by evaporation, strain, add chloroform 0.25 ml. and shake until dissolved.
Dose: 2 to 8 ml. (30 to 120 minims). A similar syrup is included in several Continental pharmacopoeias.

Bladder-wrack (B.P.C. 1949, Pol. P.). Fucus; Seawrack; Kelpware. The dried plant, Fucus vesiculosus (Fucaceaa). It contains the gelatinous substance, algin, and a variable proportion, up to 0'2%, of iodine. Store in a dry place.
Uses. It was used in goitre and obesity, on account of its iodine content.

Ext. Fuci (B.P.C. 1934). Extract of Bladder wrack. A soft extract prepared with alcohol (45%).
Dose: 200 to 600 mg. (3 to 10 grains).

Ext. Fuci Liq. (B.P.C. 1934). A liquid extract (1 in 1) prepared with alcohol (45%).
Dose: 4 to 8 ml. (60 to 120 minims).

Chondrus (B.P.C.). Chond.; Carrageen; Irish Moss.
The dried seaweed Chondrus crispus (Gigartinaceae) in yellowish, translucent, horny masses consisting of slender thalli from 5 to 30 cm. in length. It becomes gelatinous and translucent when soaked in cold water. A 3% solution in boiling water forms a thick jelly on cooling.
Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Belg., Dan., Ger., and Swiss, and also in U.S.N.F., all of which allow also Gigartina mamillosa (Gigartinaceae).
Uses. Chondrus is used as an emulsifying agent for cod-liver and other oils and as a substitute for gelatin in the preparation of jellies for invalids. A decoction has been employed as a demulcent in the treatment of coughs.

Dec. Chond. (B.P.C. 1949). Decoction of Chondrus; Decoction of Irish Moss; Mucilage of Irish Moss; Chondrus Mucilage. Washed chondrus 25 g., boiled with water for 15 min., strained while hot, and adjusted with water to 1000 ml. Dose: 30 to 120 ml. (1 to 4 fl. oz.) or more. A useful emulsifying agent, especially when a homogeniser is available.

Chondrus Extract (U.S.N.F.). Carrageenin; Irish Moss Extract. The dried refined hydrocolloidal aqueous extract. A coarse or fine, tan-coloured, almost odourless powder with a mucilaginous taste. Almost completely soluble 1 in 100 of water at 85�, forming a viscous, opalescent, colloidal solution which flows readily. Insoluble in most organic solvents. It disperses more readily if first moistened with alcohol, glycerin, or syrup.

Carrageenin Base for Medicated Jellies. Carrageenin 4, glycerin or propylene glycol 2, alkyl p-hydroxybenzoates 0.2, water to 100. Moisten the Carrageenin with the glycerin or propylene glycol, and disperse in water in which the preservatives have been dissolved. Some gel strength is lost on prolonged storage.�H. H. Hutchins and R. E. Singiser, J. Amer. pharm. Ass., Pract, Pharm. Edn, 1955, 16, 226

Carrageenin Emulsions. Best results were obtained with mucilages containing 0.2 to 0.4% of carrageenin, the coarse emulsion formed by triturating the mucilage with the oil, added in small quantities, being improved by the use of a homogeniser. � B. W. Fitzgerald and D. M. Skauen, J. Amer. pharm. Ass., Sci. Edn, 1955, 44, 358.

Chondrus Mucilage (U.S.N.F.). Irish Moss Mucilage. Chondrus 3 g. in boiling water to 100 ml., or chondrus extract 2 g. in hot water to 100 ml.

Cydonia (B.P.C.1949). Quince Seeds; Cydoniae Semen; Cognassier; Quittenkern.
Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Belg., Fr., Nor., and Swiss.
The seeds of Cydonia oblonga ( = C. vulgaris) (Rosaceae), containing about 20% of mucilage (cydonin). Protect from moisture.
Uses. Cydonia is soothing and demulcent. It is used in the form of a decoction (1 in 80), prepared by boiling for 10 minutes, as an ingredient of or a basis for lotions and creams. Mucilage of cydonia (1 in 25), prepared by macerating with cold water for � to 2 hours and straining without expression, is a useful suspending agent. It is necessary to add a preservative to these preparations.

Fenugreek (B.P.C. 1949, B. Vet. C.). Faenum Graecum; Semen Foenugraeci; Bockshornsamen.
Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Cz., Egyp., Ger., Pol., and Swiss. Also in Ind. P.O.
The dried seeds of Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae), containing not less than 30% of water-soluble extractive.
Uses. It is used chiefly in veterinary medicine as an aromatic.

Iceland Moss (B.P.C. 1934). Cetraria; Lichen Islandicus; Lichen d'lslande.
Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Belg., Cz., Ger., Hung., Jug., Pol., Span., and Swiss.
The dried lichen, Cetraria islandica (Parmeliaceae). It has a mucilaginous and bitter taste. A 5% decoction gelatinises on cooling.
Uses. It has demulcent properties and is used in northern Europe as a food. It is usually administered as decoction (1 in 20; dose: 1 to 4 fl. oz.) or as pastilles. The bitterness (due to cetraric acid) may be removed by prolonged maceration with water, or by macerating with a dilute solution of potassium carbonate, or by soaking in spirit for 48 hours.

Ispaghula (B.P.C., Ind. P.). Isafgul; Isapgol; Spogel Seeds; Blond Psyllium; Indian Plantago Seed; Psylla Seeds.
Dose: 3 to 10 g. (45 to 150 grains).
The dried ripe seeds of Plantago ovata (Plantaginaceae), containing mucilage and swelling in contact with moisture. Protect from air and moisture.
Uses. Ispaghula is used in the treatment of chronic constipation. It is also said to be of value in bacillary dysentery and chronic diarrhoea. The action is purely mechanical and is due to the large amount of mucilage contained in the seeds. The seeds should be soaked in water for some hours before taking, or the drug may be administered in powder form. An effective remedy in acute cases of bacillary dysentery or diarrhoea is the use of a fresh decoction of ispaghula seeds prepared daily by boiling 2 drachms of the seeds in 1 pint of water for 10 to 15 minutes, straining through cloth, and sweetening. The patient drinks 3 oz. every 2 hours and finishes the whole by the evening.�B. H. Singh, Indian med. Gaz., 1940, 733.

Ispaghula Husk. Ispaghula; Testa (Ind. P.). The epidermis removed from ispaghula, usually in the form of small, colourless, brittle flakes which swell rapidly in water. It is used in the same way as the whole seeds but is more powerful in action.
Dose: 0-5 to 2 g. (8 to 30 grains).

Linseed (B.P.C.). Linum; Flaxseed; Lini Semina; Lin; Leinsame; Semilla de lino.
Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Belg., Chil., Cz., Dan., Egyp., Fr., Ger., Hung., Ind., Jap., Jug., Nor., Pol., Span., Swed., and Swiss. Also in U.S.N.F.
The dried ripe seeds of Linum usitatissimum (Linaceae). The seeds contain mucilage and 30 to 40% of fixed oil. Store in a cool dry place.
Uses. Preparations of linseed are administered for their demulcent action in the treatment of cough. The seeds, 1 or 2 teaspoonfuls in a tumbler of water, may be taken to increase the bulk of the intestinal contents in the treatment of constipation. A mucilage (1 in 8), prepared by pouring boiling water over linseed and straining, has been used as a demulcent drink.

Crushed Linseed (B.P.C.). Linum Contusum; Linseed Meal; Powdered Linseed; Lini Semina Contusa; Lini Placentas Farina; Placenta Seminis Lini; Leinkuchen.
Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Belg., Ger., Hung., Ind., and Jug.
Coarsely powdered linseed, recently prepared, containing not less than 30% of fixed oil. Store in a cool dry place. Powdered linseed cake, left after extraction of oil, is sometimes known as 'linseed meal'; it contains 6 to 8% of oil.
Uses. It is used as a poultice (Cataplasma lini) to apply warmth and moisture locally for the relief of superficial or deep-seated inflammation. The poultice mass may be prepared by gradually adding 4 oz. of crushed linseed to 10 fl. oz. of boiling water. It is usually applied enclosed in muslin; the poultice may be smeared with oil to prevent its adhering to the skin.

Psyllium (B.P.C.). Psyll.; Flea Seed; Psyllium Seed; Flohsame.
Dose: 4 to 16 g. (60 to 240 grains).
Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Dan. (P. psyllium only), Fr., Pol., and Swiss.
The dried ripe seeds of Plantago psyllium and of P. arenaria (=P. indica) (Plantaginaceae). Protect from moisture.
Uses. Psyllium, on account of its content of mucilage, is used as a demulcent. It absorbs and retains water and is therefore used as a bulk-providing medium in the treatment of chronic constipation. It is taken with water.

Plantago Seed (U.S.N.F.). Psyllium Seed; Plantain Seed; Plantaginis Semen. The cleaned, dried, ripe seed of Plantago psyllium, or of P. arenaria, or of P. ovata (cf. Ispaghula and Psyllium).

(Roberts). A brand of psyllium seeds.
Coreine (Daniel-Brunei, Boulogne-sur-Seine: Wilcox, Jozeau). A pure vegetable mucilage in flakes or granules. For constipation. Dose: 2 teaspoonfuls thrice daily. 
I-so-gel (Allen & Hanburys). Dried granules prepared from the husks of certain mucilaginous tropical seeds. For habitual constipation. Dose: 1/2 to 1 teaspoonful.
Metamucil (Searle, U.K.). A refined hydrophilic colloid derived from P. ovata, with an equal amount of dextrose. For constipation. Dose: I rounded teaspoonful (7 g.) in a glass of cool water, milk, or fruit juice, once to thrice daily.
Normacol (Norgine). A preparation of dried plant mucilage of the bassorin type with a small amount of frangula bark, available as sugar-coated granules. For constipation. Dose: 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls once or twice daily, the granules being placed on the tongue dry and swallowed with plenty of water. Normacol Plain is available as uncoated granules, for diabetics. Normacol Special is Normacol without the addition of frangula bark. Normacot Antispasmodic Granules contain sterculia 62%, and dipropyline citrate [ethyldi(3-phenylpropyl)amine citrate] 0.5%. For spastic and hypertonic constipation. Dose: 1 to 2 heaped teaspoonfuls once or twice daily.
Vi-Siblin (Parke, Davis). A water-absorbent preparation from plantago seeds, with aneurine hydrochloride; each heaped teaspoonful (about 4 . 5 g.) contains about 0.5 mg. of aneurine hydrochloride. For chronic constipation.

Salep. Tubera Salep.
Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Belg., Cz., Ger., Hung., Jug., Nor., Pol., and Swiss.
The dried tubers of various orchidaceous plants, particularly the Early Purple Orchis, Orchis mascula, and other species of Orchis (Orchidaceae). The tubers are immersed in boiling water on collection and dried. They contain mucilage and have nutritive and demulcent properties, allaying gastro-intestinal irritation. Mucilage of salep (Mucilago Salep) is prepared by boiling the powdered drug (1%) with water; a small amount of alcohol (about 2%) is sometimes used to assist dispersion of the particles.
A note on salep with a brief historical review and a description of the whole and powdered drug.� R. G. Atkinson, Pharm. J., i/1956, 176.

Slippery Elm (B.P.C. 1949, U.S.N.F.). Ulmus Fulva; Slippery Elm Bark; Elm (U.S.N.F.); Elm Bark; Ulmus.
The dried inner bark of Ulmus fulva ( = U. rubra) (Ulmaceae). Protect from moisture in a dry place.
Uses. It contains much mucilage and in powder is used as a demulcent in catarrhal affections and in diarrhoea and dysentery. It should be free from starch. 10 grains shaken with 1 fl. oz. of water should form a thick, jelly-like fawn-coloured mass. Mixed with hot water, the powder is used as a poultice in abscesses and whitlows. It may be administered as decoction (1 in 8; dose: 2 to 4 fl. oz.).

 See also Chondrus N.F.             

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