The Extra Pharmacopoeia. Martindale�s 24th British.
Edited by Ivor Hughes


Capsicum (B.P.C.). Capsic.; Cayenne Pepper; African Pepper; Chillies; Capsici Fructus; Piment Rouge; Spanischer Pfeffer Paprika.
Dose: 30 to 120 mg. (� to 2 grains).
The dried ripe fruits of Capsicum minimum and small-fruited varieties of C. frutescens (Solanacese).

Foreign Pharmacopoeias: Belg., Chin., Cz., Dan., Ger., Hung., Jap., Jug., Nor., and Swed. all specify C. annuum. Egyp. specifies C. minimum. Ind. specifies C. annuum or C. frutescens. Pol., Span., and Swiss specify C. annuum var. longum.
U.S.N.F. specifies C. frutescens (African Chillies), C. annuum var. conoides (Tabasco Pepper), C. annuum var. longum (Louisiana Long Pepper), or a hybrid known as Louisiana Sport Pepper. It contains about 0-14 to 0-22% of the pungent principle capsaicin and 20 to 30% of alcohol (60%) soluble extractive. Protect from light and moisture.

Uses. It has a carminative action and is of value in atonic dyspepsia. Externally it acts as a counter-irritant in lumbago, neuralgia, and rheumatism.


Lin. Capsic. (B.P.C. 1934). Liniment of Capsicum.
Stronger tincture of capsicum 35 ml., oleic acid 12-5 ml., oil of lavender 0-62 ml., alcohol (90%) to 100 ml. When painted on the skin, or applied on flannel, it causes reddening of the skin within an hour; its action may be arrested by smearing the part with soft paraffin.

Mist. Capsic. et Zingib. (Roy. Free Hosp.).
Capsicum tincture 3 m., syrup of ginger 30 m., syrup to 60 m. Dose: 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls in warm water.

Ointment of Capsicum (B.P.C.). Ung. Capsic.
Capsicum, bruised, 25% in simple ointment.

Tinct. Capsic. Fort. (B.P.C. 1934). Stronger Tincture of Capsicum;
Turnbull's Tincture of Capsicum. Prepared by macerating capsicum 1 in 3 of alcohol (60%). Dose: 0-06 to 0-2 ml. (1 to 3 minims). It is used externally, especially for chilblains, but only when the skin is unbroken. It is too irritating for general use.

Tincture of Capsicum (B.P.C., Ind. P.). Tinct. Capsic.
Prepared by macerating capsicum 1 in 20 of alcohol (60%). Dose: 0-3 to 1 ml. (5 to 15 minims).
Belg. P., Cz. P., Dan. P., Egyp. P., Hung. P., Jap. P., Nor. P., Pol. P., Span. P., Suied. P., U.S.N.F., and Ind. P.C. specify 1 in 10.

Oleoresin of Capsicum (B.P.C.). Oleores. Capsic.; Capsicin; Extract of Capsicum.
: 0-6 to 2 mg. (1/100th to 1/30th grain). It is made by extracting with acetone and evaporating the solvent, extracting the residue with alcohol (90%), and removing the alcohol by evaporation. The oleoresin of the U.S.N.F. is the acetone or ether soluble extractive of capsicum (usual dose: 15 mg.). Soluble in alcohol, acetone, ether, benzene, chloroform, and fixed oils and fats. If separation occurs it should be warmed and mixed before use.
Caution. Oleoresin of Capsicum is a powerful irritant and even a minute quantity produces an intense burning sensation in contact with the eyes and tender parts of the skin. The use of a dilute solution of potassium permanganate on the skin, and of Eye drops of Cocaine for the eyes, is most likely to be effective in allaying the irritation.

Capsicum Cotton Wool (B.P.C.). Gossypium Capsici; Capsicum Cotton.
Absorbent cotton wool impregnated with oleoresin of capsicum, methyl salicylate (about 1%), and an orange-brown dye.

Capsicum Elastic Self-adhesive Plaster (B.P.C.). Capsicum Elastic Plaster.
Cotton or cotton and rayon elastic cloth spread evenly with a self-adhesive plaster mass containing 0-5 to 1-5% of oleoresin of capsicum. The elastic cloth may be perforated, and the adhesive surface is covered by a protective layer of muslin or other suitable material.

Capsicum Self-adhesive Plaster (B.P.C.). Capsicum Plaster; Emplastrum Capsici.
Cotton or rayon or cotton and rayon cloth of plain weave spread evenly with a self-adhesive plaster mass containing 0-5 to 1-5% of oleoresin of capsicum. The cloth may be perforated, and the adhesive surface is covered by a protective layer of muslin or other suitable material.

Gauze and Capsicum Cotton Tissue (B.P.C.). Tela Carbasi et Gossypii Capsici; Capsicum Tissue.
Capsicum wool enclosed in tubular absorbent gauze which is tinted orange-brown.

Ung. Capsic. Co. (B.P.C. 1949). Compound Ointment of Capsicum; Chillie Paste; Unguentum Oleoresina; Capsici Compositum. Oleoresin of capsicum 2 g., menthol 10 g., chloral hydrate 10 g., camphor 10 g., and yellow soft paraffin 68 g.

Ung. Capsic. Fort. (B.P.C. 1934). Strong Capsicum Ointment
Oleoresin of capsicum 4-5 g., yellow beeswax 9 g., and benzoinated lard 86-5 g.

Capsolin (Parke, Davis). An ointment containing capsicum oleoresin 6 m., camphor 23 gr., turpentine oil 54 m., and eucalyptus oil 13 m., in a basis of wax and soft paraffin. A counter irritant in deep seated inflammation, muscular rheumatism, and neuralgia. It does not blister the skin.

Thermogene Medicated Wadding (Beecham Pharmaceuticals) is impregnated with capsicum oleoresin 2'86% and methyl salicylate 0-03%.

Black Pepper (B.P.C. 1949). Piper Nigrum; Pepper; Piper.
300 to 600 mg. (5 to 10 grains). Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Cz., Ger., Jap., and Jug. Also in Ind. P.C.
The dried unripe fruits of Piper nigrum (Piperaceas), containing a pungent resin, chavicine, with piperine, piperidine, and 1 to 2-5% of volatile oil. It should be stored in a dry place. Black pepper, in powder, should be stored in well-closed containers which prevent access of moisture, in a cool place. Uses. Black pepper stimulates the taste-buds, producing a reflex increase in gastric secretion. It has diaphoretic and diuretic properties.

Conf. Piper. (B.P.C. 1949). Confection of Pepper.
Black pepper 10 g., caraway 15 g., and purified honey 75 g. Dose: 4 to 8 g. (60 to 120 grains).

Oleoresin of Pepper (Ind. P.C.). Oleoresina Piperis.
Prepared by extracting black pepper with ether. Dose: 0-015 to 0'06 ml. (V4 to 1 minim).

White Pepper (B.P.C. 1949). Piper Album.
The ripe fruits of Piper nigrum (Piperacese) deprived of the outer part of the pericarp. It contains less volatile oil than black pepper. It should be stored in the same way as black pepper. It is used for the same purposes as black pepper but is less aromatic.

Long Pepper (Ind. P.C.). Piper Longum.
300 to 600 mg. (5 to 10 grains).
The dried ripe or unripe fruits of Piper longum (Piperacese). It contains 5 to 6-4% of piperine and about 1 % of volatile oil. Long pepper of commerce includes the fruits of P. retrofactum (P. officinarum). Protect from moisture in a cool place. Its properties are similar to those of black pepper.

Turmeric (B.P.C. 1949). Curcuma; Indian Saffron. The dried rhizome of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceas).
Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Belg., Chil., Fr., and Swed. Ind. allows both dried and fresh rhizome, and specifies a volatile oil content of not less than 4%. It contains curcumin, a yellow pigment which dissolves in alcohol to form a deep yellow solution; alkalis change the colour to reddish-brown. It contains also a volatile oil, starch, and resin. Protect from light.

Uses. Turmeric is used principally as a constituent of curry powders and other condiments. It has been employed in the treatment of chronic cholecystitis. The tincture is used for the preparation of turmeric paper, and has also been used as a yellow colouring agent.

Tinct. Curcum. (Ind. P.). Tincture of Turmeric.
1 in 5, prepared by percolation with alcohol (85%). Dose: 2 to 8 ml. (30 to 120 minims).

Black Mustard (B.P.C. 1949). Sinapis Nigra; Graine de Moutarde Noire; Schwarzer Senf; Semilla de mostaza.

Emetic dose: 10 g. (150 grains) in about 200 ml. of warm water. The dried ripe seeds of Brassica nigra ( = B. sinapioides) (Cruciferae).

Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Belg., Chil, Chin., Cz., Egyp., Fr., Ger., Jug., Mex., Nor., Pol., Span., and Swed. (all from B. nigra). U.S.N.F. has a synonym Brown Mustard and allows also the seeds of B. juncea and varieties of the two species.

Jap. also allows the seeds of B. juncea, and includes the oil-free seeds, Sinapis exoleata. It contains the glycoside sinigrin (potassium myronate) and the enzyme myrosin, which interact in the presence of water to yield allyl isothiocyanate (0-8 to 2%).
Store in a dry place.

White Mustard (B.P.C. 1949). Sinapis Alba.
The dried ripe seeds of Brassica alba (Cruciferae). It contains the glycoside sinalbin and the enzyme myrosin. Store in a dry place.

Bath Mustard is a mixture of black and white mustard. Mustard Bran consists chiefly of the seed coats of black mustard. Mustard Flour consists of powdered black and white seeds from which the seed coats have been largely removed.

Uses. Mustard flour is used as a condiment and as an emetic (1 table spoonful in a tumblerful of warm water). It causes redness and a feeling of warmth when applied to the skin or mucous membranes and acts as a counter irritant when applied as a poultice or as mustard paper. It may blister tender skins. Added to hot water it may be used as a foot bath.

Balneum Sinapis (B.P.C. 1949). Mustard Bath.
Bath mustard, of commerce, 12 oz. in 30 gal.

Cataplasma Sinapis (B.P.C. 1934). Mustard Poultice.
Mustard flour 2% in linseed poultice.

Mustard Plaster (U.S.N.F.). Mustard Paper; Emplastrum Sinapis.
A spread plaster on paper, cloth, or other material, prepared with oil-free black mustard and a suitable adhesive; each sq. cm. contains at least 25 mg. of the mustard. It should be applied after moistening with tepid water.

Charta Sinapisata (Swiss P.). Papier moutarde; Senfpapier.
A plaster of powdered, oil-free, black mustard, pressed on unsized paper coated with rubber solution; it contains at least 30 mg. of allyl isothiocyanate per 100 sq. cm. Similar preparations are included in many foreign pharmacopoeias

Expressed Mustard Oil (B.P.C.). Ol. Sinap. Express.; Black Mustard Oil.
It is expressed from black mustard seeds, which contain about 27% of fixed oil. Ind. P. specifies the oil from B. juncea.
A brownish-yellow or greenish-brown oil with a slight odour and a mild, not unpleasant taste. Slightly soluble in alcohol; miscible with ether, chloroform, and light petroleum. Wt per ml. 0-915 to 0-920 g. Protect from light in well-filled containers in a cool place.
Uses. It is used as a mild rubefacient for the chest and for rheumatic joints.

Volatile Mustard Oil (B.P.C. 1949). Ol. Sinap. Vol.; Essence of Mustard; Senfol.
It is prepared synthetically or distilled from black mustard seeds after expression of the fixed oil and maceration in tepid water to allow interaction between the glycoside sinigrin and the enzyme myrosin. Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Cz., Ger., Jug., Pol., and Swiss (prepared synthetically or by distillation); in Fr. (prepared synthetically). A colourless or pale yellow mobile liquid with an intensely pungent odour and an acrid taste, containing not less than 92% w/w of allyl isothiocyanate, C3H6CNS = 99-16. Wt per ml. 1-007 to
1-020 g. Soluble 1 in I50 of water and 1 in 10 of alcohol (70%); miscible with organic solvents. Protect from light in a cool place.
Uses. It is an extremely powerful irritant and when applied undiluted it causes rapid blistering of the skin. Diluted with alcohol  (1 in 50) or as Liniment of Mustard it is used as a counter-irritant and rubefacient.

Lin. Sinap. (B.P.C. 1949). Liniment of Mustard.
Volatile mustard oil 3-5 ml., camphor 5-5 g., castor oil 12-5 ml., alcohol (90%) to 100 ml.

Spiritus Sinapis (Ger. P.). Spirit of Mustard; Senfspiritus.
Volatile oil of mustard 2 g., alcohol 98 g. Similar preparations are included in Cz. P., Pol. P., and Swiss.

Sinapsolin (Lilly). An ointment containing volatile mustard oil 2%, capsicum oleoresin 3%, camphor 1-5%, and menthol 1-5%. A counter-irritant and anodyne ointment to replace mustard plaster.

Garlic (B.P.C. 1949). Allium; Ail.
2 to 8 g. (30 to 120 grains). Foreign Pharmacopoeias: In Fr. and Span. Also in Ind. P.C.
The fresh bulb of Allium sativum (Liliaceae).
It has a very strong and disagreeable odour, and a strongly pungent and persistent taste. It yields 0-1 to 0-3% of a volatile oil containing allyl propyl disulphide and diallyl disulphide. Stored in a cool dry place with free access of air it may be kept for about 6 months after harvesting. Uses. Garlic has expectorant, antiseptic, diaphoretic and diuretic properties, and has been used as the syrup in the treatment of chronic bronchitis and other pulmonary conditions. The juice has been given by mouth, or used as a gargle or spray, in the treatment of laryngeal tuberculosis. Fresh juice is not as strong as pulped garlic, but should never be applied to abraded surfaces. Administration of preparations of garlic to children is dangerous and fatalities have been recorded. ***

OXYURIASIS. Using an ethereal extract of garlic (64-8 g. of extract from 500 g. of fresh plant) suppositories were prepared containing 250 mg. of the extract, and 20 drops of tincture of eucalyptus in cocoa butter to 2 g.
For children of 4 to 10 years the suppositories contained 100 mg. of the extract and 10 drops of tincture of eucalyptus. One suppository was used daily for 5 days and the course repeated in 3 weeks. Satisfactory results, with ending of pruritus and no irritation of the rectal mucous membrane.�H. Harant and M. Caron, per Trap. Dis. Bull., 1950, 47, 391.

Garlic Cough Mixture.
Garlic juice (expressed juice preserved with chloroform 0.5%, set aside for 14 days, and decanted) 2 fl. oz., liquid extract of Liquorice 120 m., spirit of chloroform 60 m., syrup 5 fl. oz., water to 10 fl. oz. Dose: � fl. oz�J.  Rae, Mfg Chem., 1951,22,221

Succus Allii (B.P.C. 1949, Ind. P.O.). Juice of Garlic.
Bruise garlic 80 g. and express the juice; mix the marc with water 20 mil. and again express the liquid; repeat the operation until the volume of the mixed juice and washings amounts to 80 ml., and add alcohol (90%) 20 ml.; allow to stand for 14 days, and decant or filter. Dose: 2 to 4 ml. (30 to 60 minims).

Syr. Allii (B.P.C. 1949). Syrup of Garlic.
Juice of garlic 20 ml., sucrose 80 g., dilute acetic acid 20 ml., water 20 ml.
Dose: 2 to 8 ml. (30 to 120 minims).

Teinture d'Ail (Fr. P.). Tincture of Garlic.
Prepared by macerating garlic 1, with alcohol (60%) 5, for 10 days. Usual dose: 0-35 ml. (5 minims)

Allisatin (Sartdoz Products). Sugar coated tablets each containing the equivalent of 1 g. of fresh garlic adsorbed on activated charcoal. For diarrhoea and dyspepsia. Dose: 2 or 3 tablets thrice daily before meals.

***Editors Note for the natural therapist:  Oxyuriasis is an infestation with a species of nematode which favours the rectum of the horse. The dray horse was a common sight in city streets of the UK. until circa 1952. In addition bread and milk were often delivered by horse drawn vans. Horse dung was a daily hazard which pedestrians were adept at circumventing. The vector for the infestation of the working class child was obvious. Socio economic conditions were such that many of the children were invariably malnourished. A major part of the diet consisted of what was known as the jam butty. Wedges of white bread smeared with margarine and laced with white sugar laden jams. Malnutrition! Consequently threadworm infestation was common in such children.

At that point in time Garlic was an exotic bulb in the UK.  The first recourse of folk medicine was the Onion and apples eaten in quantity. If the threadworms did not yield then a salt spoon of tobacco was infused in room temperature water over night and administered as an enema. No fatalities from such treatment were ever recorded.

A close examination of the preparations in this monograph will yield much insight and of course raise many questions as to the concentration, and the methods and solvents employed.  One should also question the poly pharmaceutical preparation of garlic, eucalyptus and theobroma applied to the sensitive mucosa of the rectum.  It will also be obvious that the child deaths were caused by the usual over dosage and experimentation on the poor