Belladonna � Atropa belladonna L.
British Pharmacopoeia 1958.
2. Mrs. M. Grieve F.R.H.S.
3. Boericke�s Homeopathic Materia Medica.
Compiled and edited by Ivor Hughes

BELLADONNA HERB Belladonnas Folium Bellad. Herb Belladonna Leaf

Belladonna Herb consists of the leaves, or leaves and other aerial parts, of Atropa belladonna L., collected when the plants are in flower and dried. It contains not less than 0-30 per cent of the alkaloids of Belladonna Herb, calculated as hyoscyamine.

Description. Odour, slight; taste, somewhat bitter and acrid.

Macroscopical. Sometimes crumpled and twisted and partly matted together, or in fragments. Leaves, alternate, often in pairs, each consisting of a larger and a smaller leaf; green or brownish-green, thin and brittle; lamina, mostly 5 to 25 cm. long and 2-5 to 12 cm. wide; entire, ovate-lanceolate to broadly ovate, with an acuminate apex; lamina somewhat decurrent and only slightly hairy; when broken transversely, showing white points on the broken surface; petiole mostly from 0-5 to 4 cm. long. Associated with many of the pairs of leaves, a drooping flower borne upon a short pedicel and also a rudimentary axillary shoot which may have developed and bears one or more flowers; corolla, about 2-5 cm. long and 1-2 cm. wide, campanulate, purplish or yellowish-brown, with five small reflexed lobes. Stamens, five, epipetalous; ovary, superior, bilocular with numerous ovules. Stems, green to purplish-green, more or less hollow and flattened, finely hairy when young. Fruit, immature, sub globular, green to brown, up to about 12 mm. in width, with persistent, green, 5-lobed calyx, and containing numerous flattened subreniform seeds.

Microscopical. Leaf: trichomes, more numerous on young than on old leaves, of three types, smooth, simple uniseriate, conical, covering extraction of the alkaloids is effected. Wash each chloroform solution separately with the same 10 ml. of water, mix, remove most of the chloroform and transfer the remainder of the solution to a shallow open dish. Complete the removal of the chloroform, add to the residue 2 ml. of dehydrated alcohol, evaporate to dryness, dry at 100� and weigh at intervals of one hour until two successive weighings do not differ by more than 1 mg. Dissolve the residue in 2 ml. of chloroform, add 10 ml. of N/20 sulphuric acid, warm to remove the chloroform, cool, and titrate with N/20 sodium hydroxide, using methyl red solution as indicator. Each ml. of N/20 sulphuric acid is equivalent to 0-01447 g. of alkaloids, calculated as hyoscyamine. Storage. Belladonna Herb should be stored in a dry place, protected from light.

POWDERED BELLADONNA HERB (Belladonnas Herba Pulvis)
Description. Green. Diagnostic structures: epidermis, with sinuous walls and wavy striated cuticle, the sinuosity more marked on the abaxial surface; stomata, anisocytic, more frequent in the abaxial surface; covering trichomes, conical, uniseriate, 4 or 5 cells long; glandular trichomes of two types, clavate and uniseriate; mesophyll with one layer of palisade cells, spongy parenchyma with rounded idioblasts containing microsphenoidal crystals; vessels, spiral, annular and reticulate; pollen grains, characteristic; testa, white to brown with thickened wavy anticlinal walls.

Standard for alkaloids; Acid-insoluble ash; Foreign organic matter; Storage. Complies with the requirements for alkaloids, Acid-insoluble ash, Foreign organic matter, and Storage stated under Belladonna Herb.

Preparations. Belladonna Dry Extract, see below. Belladonna Tincture. Prepared Belladonna Herb. When Belladonna Herb, Belladonna Leaf, Belladonnas Folium, Powdered Belladonna Herb, or Belladonnas Herba; Pulvis is prescribed, Prepared Belladonna Herb shall be dispensed.

Extractum Belladonnas Siccum Bellad. Dry Ext. Ext. Bellad. Sice. Belladonna Extract

Belladonna Dry Extract contains 1-0 per cent of the alkaloids of Belladonna Herb, calculated as hyoscyamine (limits, 0-95 to 1 -05).

Belladonna Herb, in moderately coarse powder . 1000 g.
Of the following a sufficient quantity.
Belladonna Herb, in fine powder. Dried at 80�
Alcohol (70 per cent)

Percolate the Belladonna Herb in moderately coarse powder with Alcohol (70 per cent) until 4000 ml. of percolate has been obtained.

Determine the proportion of total solids in the percolate by evaporating 20 ml., drying the residue at 80�, and weighing. Determine also the proportion of alkaloids in the percolate by the Assay described under Belladonna Tincture, see below, using 50 ml., and the proportion of alkaloids present in the Belladonna Herb in fine powder by the Assay described under Belladonna Herb, . From the results of the three determinations, calculate the amount of Belladonna Herb in fine powder that must be added to the percolate to produce a dry extract containing 1 -0 per cent of alkaloids.

Add to the percolate a somewhat smaller amount of Belladonna Herb in fine powder than calculation has shown to be necessary, remove the alcohol, evaporate to dryness under reduced pressure at a temperature not exceeding 60�, and dry in a current of air at 80�. Powder the residue, add the final necessary amount of Belladonna Herb in fine powder and triturate in a dry, slightly warmed mortar until thoroughly mixed. Pass the powdered Extract through a No. 22 sieve and mix.

In making Belladonna Dry Extract, the Alcohol (70 per cent) may be replaced by Industrial Methylated Spirit diluted so as to be of equivalent alcoholic strength, provided that the law and the statutory regulations governing the use of Industrial Methylated Spirit are observed.

Assay. Weigh accurately about 3 g. and wash into a separator with 12 ml. of a mixture of equal volumes of alcohol (95 per cent) and water. Shake well and frequently during about thirty minutes. Add 2 ml. of dilute ammonia solution and 25 ml. of chloroform, shake well, and run the chloroform layer into a second separator through a tightly packed plug of cotton wool previously moistened with chloroform. Repeat the extraction with further quantities, each of 25 ml., of chloroform, usually about four times in all, until complete extraction of the alkaloids is effected, running each chloroform solution through the plug of cotton wool as before. Shake the chloroform solution with successive quantities of a mixture of 3 volumes of N/5 sulphuric acid and 1 volume of alcohol (95 per cent) until complete extraction is effected. Complete the Assay described under Belladonna Herb, commencing at the words 'Wash the mixed acid solutions . . .'.

Storage. Belladonna Dry Extract should be kept in a small, wide-mouthed, well-closed container and stored in a cool place.

DOSE. 15 to 60 mg. (� to 1 gr.).

Belladonna Dry Extract contains in 60 mg. 0-6 mg., and in 1 gr. l/100 gr., of the alkaloids of Belladonna Herb, calculated as hyoscyamine.

Bellad. Tinct.

Belladonna Tincture contains 0-03 per cent w/v of the alkaloids of Belladonna Herb, calculated as hyoscyamine (limits, 0-028 to 0-032).

Belladonna Herb, in moderately coarse powder � 100 g.
Alcohol (70 per cent) . . .a sufficient quantity

Prepare about 900 ml. of a tincture by Percolation. Determine the proportion of alkaloids in this tincture by the Assay described below, and add, if necessary, sufficient Alcohol (70 per cent) to produce a Belladonna Tincture of the required strength. Alcohol content. 64 to 69 per cent v/v.

Assay. Evaporate 100 ml. on a water-bath to about 10 ml., add, if necessary, sufficient alcohol (95 per cent) to dissolve any separated substance, and transfer to a separator, rinsing the vessel with a little water. Add 10 ml. of water and 2 ml. of dilute ammonia solution and shake with successive quantities of chloroform until complete extraction of the alkaloids is effected. Shake the mixed chloroform solutions with successive quantities of N/5 sulphuric acid until complete extraction of the alkaloids is effected. Complete the Assay described under Belladonna Herb, commencing at the words 'Wash the mixed acid solutions . . .'.

DOSE. 0-6 to 2 ml. (10 to 30 min.).

Belladonna Tincture contains in 2 ml. 0-6 mg., and in 30 min. about 1/100 gr. of the alkaloids of Belladonna Herb, calculated as hyoscyamine.

Belladonna Praeparata Prep. Bellad. Herb

Prepared Belladonna Herb is Belladonna Herb reduced to a fine powder and adjusted, if necessary, by the admixture in suitable proportion of powdered Belladonna Herb having lower or higher alkaloidal content, or of powdered exhausted Belladonna Herb, to contain 0-3 per cent of the alkaloids of Belladonna Herb, calculated as hyoscyamine (limits, 0-28 to 0-32).

Description. Green; odour, slight; taste, somewhat bitter and acrid. Microscopical.. Exhibits the diagnostic structures described under Powdered Belladonna Herb.
Acid-insoluble ash. Not more than 3-0 per cent. Carry out the Assay described under Belladonna Herb.
Storage. Prepared Belladonna Herb should be kept in an air-tight container, protected from light.

DOSE. 30 to 200 mg. (� to 3 gr.).

Prepared Belladonna Herb contains in 200 mg. 0-6 mg., and in 3 gr. about 1/100 gr. of the alkaloids of Belladonna Herb, calculated as hyoscyamine.

2. Mrs. M. Grieve F.R.H.S.
A Modern Herbal

. Atropa Belladonna (LINN.)
N.O. Solanaceae
Synonyms. Belladonna. Devil's Cherries. Naughty Man's Cherries. Divale. Black Cherry. Devil's Herb. Great Morel. Dwayberry Parts Used. Root, leaves, tops Habitat. Widely distributed over Central and Southern Europe, South-west Asia and
Algeria; cultivated in England, France and North America

Though widely distributed over Central and Southern Europe, the plant is not common in England, and has become rarer of late years. Although chiefly a native of the southern counties, being almost confined to calcareous soils, it has been sparingly found in twenty-eight British counties, mostly in waste places, quarries and near old ruins. In Scotland it is rare. Under the shade of trees, on wooded hills, on chalk or limestone, it will grow most luxuriantly, forming bushy plants several feet high, but specimens growing in places exposed to the sun are apt to be dwarfed, consequently it rarely attains such a large size when cultivated in the open, and is more subject to the attacks of insects than when growing wild under natural conditions.

Description. The root is thick, fleshy and whitish, about 6 inches long, or more, and branching. It is perennial. The purplish-coloured stem is annual and herbaceous. It is stout, 2 to 4 feet high, undivided at the base, but dividing a little above the ground into three - more rarely two or four branches, each of which again branches freely. The leaves are dull, darkish green in colour and of unequal size, 3 to 10 inches long, the lower leaves solitary, the upper ones in pairs alternately from opposite sides of the stem, one leaf of each pair much larger than the other, oval in shape, acute at the apex, entire and attenuated into short petioles. First-year plants grow only about 1� feet in height. Their leaves are often larger than in full-grown plants and grow on the stem immediately above the ground. Older plants attain a height of 3 to 5 feet, occasionally even 6 feet, the leaves growing about 1 to 2 feet from the ground.

The whole plant is glabrous, or nearly so, though soft, downy hairs may occur on the young stems and the leaves when quite young. The veins of the leaves are prominent on the under surface, especially the midrib, which is depressed on the upper surface of the leaf. The fresh plant, when crushed, exhales a disagreeable odour, almost disappearing on drying, and the leaves have a bitter taste, when both fresh and dry.

The flowers, which appear in June and July, singly, in the axils of the leaves, and continue blooming until early September, are of a dark and dingy purplish colour, tinged with green, large (about an inch long), pendent, bell-shaped, furrowed, the corolla with five large teeth or lobes, slightly re-flexed. The five-cleft calyx spreads round the base of the smooth berry, which ripens in September, when it acquires a shining black colour and is in size like a small cherry. It contains several seeds.

The berries are full of a dark, inky juice, and are intensely sweet, and their attraction to children on that account, has from their poisonous properties, been attended with fatal results. Lyte urges growers 'to be careful to see to it and to close it in, that no body enter into the place where it groweth, that will be enticed with the beautie of the fruite to eate thereof.' And Gerard, writing twenty years later, after recounting three cases of poisoning from eating the berries, exhorts us to 'banish therefore these pernicious plants out of your gardens and all places neare to your houses where children do resort.' In September, 1916, three children were admitted to a London hospital suffering from Belladonna poisoning, caused, it was ascertained, from having eaten berries from large fruiting plants of Atropa Belladonna growing in a neighbouring public garden, the gardener being unaware of their dangerous nature, and again in 1921 the Norwich Coroner, commenting on the death of a child from the same cause, Raid that he had had four not dissimilar cases previously.

It is said that when taken by accident, the poisonous effects of Belladonna berries may be prevented by swallowing as soon as possible an emetic, such as a large glass of warm vinegar or mustard and water. In undoubted cases of this poisoning, emetics and the stomach-pump are resorted to at once, followed by a dose of magnesia, stimulants and strong coffee, the patient being kept very warm and artificial respiration being applied if necessary. A peculiar symptom in those poisoned by Belladonna is the complete loss of voice, together with frequent bending forward of the trunk and continual movements of the hands and fingers, the pupils of the eye becoming much dilated.

History. The plant in Chaucer's days was known as Dwale, which Dr. J. A. H. Murray considers was probably derived from the Scandinavian dool, meaning delay or sleep. Other authorities have derived the word from the French deuil (grief), a reference to its fatal properties. Its deadly character is due to the presence of an alkaloid, Atropine, 1/10th grain of which swallowed by a man has occasioned symptoms of poisoning. As every part of the plant is extremely poisonous, neither leaves, berries, nor root should be handled if there are any cuts or abrasions on the hands. The root is the most poisonous, the leaves and flowers less so, and the berries, except to children, least of all. It is said that an adult may eat two or three berries without injury, but dangerous symptoms appear if more are taken, and it is wiser not to attempt the experiment. Though so powerful in its action on the human body, the plant seems to affect some of the lower animals but little. Eight pounds of the herb are said to have been eaten by a horse without causing any injury, and an ass swallowed 1 lb. of the ripe berries without any bad results following. Rabbits, sheep, goats and swine eat the leaves with impunity, and birds often eat the seeds without any apparent effect, but cats and dogs are very susceptible to the poison.

Belladonna is supposed to have been the plant that poisoned the troops of Marcus Antonius during the Parthian wars. Plutarch gives a graphic account of the strange effects that followed its use. Buchanan relates in his History of Scotland (1582) a tradition that when Duncan I was King of Scotland, the soldiers of Macbeth poisoned a whole army of invading Danes by a liquor mixed with an infusion of Dwale supplied to them during a truce. Suspecting nothing, the invaders drank deeply and were easily overpowered and murdered in their sleep by the Scots.

According to old legends, the plant belongs to the devil who goes about trimming and tending it in his leisure, and can only be diverted from its care on one night in the year, that is on Walpurgis, when he is preparing for the Witches' Sabbath. The apples of Sodom are held to be related to this plant, and the name Belladonna is said to record an old superstition that at certain times it takes the form of an enchantress of exceeding loveliness, whom it is dangerous to look upon, though a more generally accepted view is that the name was bestowed on it because its juice was used by the Italian ladies to give their eyes greater brilliancy, the smallest quantity having the effect of dilating the pupils of the eye. Another derivation is founded on the old tradition that the priests used to drink an infusion before they worshipped and invoked the aid of Bellona, the Goddess of War. The generic name of the plant, Atropa, is derived from the Greek Atropos, one of the Fates who held the shears to cut the thread of human life - a reference to its deadly, poisonous nature.

Thomas Lupton (1585) says: 'Dwale makes one to sleep while he is cut or burnt by cauterizing." Gerard (1597) calls the plant the Sleeping Nightshade, and says the leaves moistened in wine vinegar and laid on the head induce sleep.

Mandrake, a foreign species of Atropa (A. Mandragora), was used in Pliny's day as an anaesthetic for operations. Its root contains an alkaloid, Mandragorine. The sleeping potion of Juliet was a preparation from this plant � perhaps also the Mandrake wine of the Ancients. It was called Circaeon, being the wine of Circe.

Belladonna is often confused in the public mind with Dulcamara'(Bittersweet), possibly because it bears the popular name of woody nightshade. The cultivation of Belladonna in England dates at least from the sixteenth century, for Lyte says, in the Niewe Herball, 1578: 'This herbe is found in some places of this Countrie, in woods and hedges and in the gardens of some Herboristes.' Though not, however, much cultivated, it was evidently growing wild in many parts of the country when our great Herbals were written.

Gerard mentions it as freely growing at Highgate, also at Wisbech and in Lincolnshire, and it gave a name to a Lancashire valley. Under the name of Solanum lethale, the plant was included in our early Pharmacopoeias, but it was dropped in 1788 and reintroduced in 1809 as Belladonna folia. Gerard was the first English writer to adopt the Italian name, of which he makes two words. The root was not used in medicine here until 1860, when Peter Squire recommended it as the basis of an anodyne liniment.

Before the War, the bulk of the world's supply of Belladonna was derived from plants growing wild on waste, stony places in Southern Europe. The industry was an important one in Croatia and Slavonia in South Hungary, the chief centre for foreign Belladonna, the annual crop in those provinces having been estimated at 60 to 100 tons of dry leaves and 150 to 200 tons of dry root. In 1908 the largest exporter in Slavonia is said to have sent out 29,880 lb. of dry Belladonna root.

The Balkan War of 1912-13 interrupted the continuity of Belladonna exports from South Hungary. Stocks of roots and leaves made shorter supplies last out until 1914, when prices rose, owing to increasing scarcity roots which realized 451 s. per cwt. in January, 1914, selling for 651s. in June, 1914. With the outbreak of the Great War and the consequent entire stoppage of supplies, the price immediately rose to 100s. per cwt., and soon after, from 3001. to 4801s. per cwt. or more. The dried leaves, from abroad, which in normal times sold at 455s to 501s per cwt., rose to 250s. to 350s. or more, per cwt. In August, 1916, the drug Atropine derived from the plant had risen from 10/6d. per oz. before the War to �7 per oz.

Cultivation. Belladonna herb and root are sold by analysis, the value depending upon the percentage of alkaloid contained. A wide variation occurs in the amount of alkaloid present. It is important, therefore, to grow the crop under such conditions of soil and temperature as are likely to develop the highest percentage of the active principle. In connection with specimens of the wild plant, it is most difficult to trace the conditions which determine the variations, but it has been ascertained that a light, permeable and chalky soil is the most suitable for this crop. This, joined to a south-west aspect on the slope of a hill, gives specially good results as regards a high percentage of alkaloids. The limits of growth of Belladonna are between 50� and 55� N. Lat. and an altitude of 300 to 600 feet, though it may descend to sea-level where the soil is calcareous, especially where the drainage is good and the necessary amount of shade is found. The question of suitability of soil is especially important. Although the cultivated plant contains less alkaloid than that which grows wild, this in reality is only true of plants transported to a soil unsuited to them. It has been found, on the contrary, that artificial aids, such as the judicious selection of manure, the cleansing and preparation of the soil, destruction of weeds, etc., in accordance with the latest scientific practice, have improved the plants in every respect, not only in bulk, but even in percentage weight of alkaloidal contents.

Authorities differ on the question of manuring. Some English growers manure little if the plants are strong, but if the soil is really poor, or the plants are weak, the crop may be appreciably increased by the use of farmyard manure, or a mixture of nitrate of soda, basic slag and kainite. Excellent results have been obtained in experiments, by treating with basic slag, a soil already slightly manured and naturally suited to the plant, the percentage of total alkaloid in dry leaf and stem from third-year plants amounting to 0-84. In this case, the season was, however, an exceptionally favourable one, and, moreover, the soil being naturally suited to the plant, the percentage of alkaloid obtained without added fertilizer was already high. Speaking from the writer's own experience, Belladonna grows in her garden at Chalfont St. Peter. The soil is gravelly, even stony in some parts, with a chalk subsoil � the conditions similar to those that the plant enjoys in its wild state. This neighbourhood, in her opinion, is a suitable one for growing fields of Belladonna as crops for medicinal purposes.

Notes and statistics taken from season to season, extending over nine years, have shown that atmospheric conditions have a marked influence on the alkaloidal contents of Belladonna, the highest percentage of alkaloid being yielded in plants grown in sunny and dry seasons. The highest percentage of alkaloid, viz. 0-68 per cent., was obtained from the Belladonna crop of 1912, a year in which the months May and June were unusually dry and sunny; the lowest, just half, 0-34 was obtained on the same ground in 1907, when the period May and June was particularly lacking in sunshine. In 1905, August and September proving a very wet season, specimens analysed showed the low percentages of 0-38 and 0-35, whereas in July and October, 1906, the intervening period being very fine and dry, specimens analysed in those months showed a percentage of 0-54 and 0-64 respectively. There appears to be no marked variation in alkaloidal contents due to different stages of growth from June to September, except when the plant begins to fade, when there is rapid loss, hence the leaves may be gathered any time from June until the fading of the leaves and shoots set in.

In sowing Belladonna seed, 2 to 3 lb. should be reckoned to the acre. Autumn sown seeds do not always germinate, it is therefore more satisfactory to sow in boxes in a cool house, or frame, in early March, soaking the soil in the seed-boxes first, with boiling water, or baking it in an oven, to destroy the embryo of a small snail which is apt, as well as slugs and various insects, to attack the seedlings later. Pieces of chalk or lime can be placed among the drainage rubble at the bottom of the boxes. Belladonna seed is very slow in germinating, taking four to six weeks, or even longer, and as a rule not more than 70 per cent, can be relied on to germinate. On account of the seeds being so prone to attack by insect pests, if sown in the open, the seed-beds should first be prepared carefully. First of all, rubbish should be burnt on the ground, the soil earthed up and fired all over, all sorts of burnt vegetable rubbish being worked in. Then thoroughly stir up the ground and leave it rough for a few days so that air and sun permeate it well. Then level and rake the bed fine and finally give it a thorough drenching with boiling water. Let it stand till dry and friable, add sharp grit sand on the surface, rake fine again and then sow the seed Very thinly.

Considerable moisture is needed during germination. The seedlings should be ready for planting out in May, when there is no longer any fear of frost. They will then be about i J inch high. Put them in after rain, or if the weather be dry, the ground should be well watered first, the seedlings puddled in and shaded from the sun with inverted flower-pots for several days. About 5,000 plants will be needed to the acre. If they are to remain where first planted, they may be planted 18 inches apart. A reserve of plants should be grown to fill in gaps.

The seedlings are liable to injury by late frosts and a light top dressing of farmyard manure or leaf-mould serves to preserve young shoots from injury during sudden and dangerous changes of temperature. They do best in shade. In America, difficulties in the cultivation of Belladonna have been overcome by interspersing plants with rows of scarlet runners, which, shading the herb, cause it to grow rapidly. Healthy young plants soon become re-established when transplanted, but require watering in dry weather. Great care must be taken to keep the crop clean from weeds and handpicking is to be recommended.

By September, the single stem will be 1� to 2� feet high. A gathering of leaves may then be made, if the plants are strong; 'leaves' include the broken-off tops of the plants, but the coarser stems are left on the plant and all discoloured portions rejected, and the plants should not be entirely denuded of leaves.

Before the approach of winter, plants must be thinned to 2� to 3 feet apart, or overcrowding will result in the second year, in which the plant will bear one or two strong stems.

The writer finds that the green tips and cuttings from side branches root well and easily in early summer, and that buds with a piece of the root attached can be taken off the bigger roots in April, this being a very successful way of rapid propagation to get big, strong plants. In the second year, in June, the crop is cut a few inches above the ground, while flowering, and delivered to the wholesale buyer the same day it is cut. The average crop of fresh herb in the second and third years is 5 to 6 tons per acre, and 5 tons of fresh leaves and tops yield 1 ton of dried herb. A second crop is obtained in September in good seasons. The yield per acre in the first year of growth should average about 6 cwt. of dry leaves.

The greatest loss of plants is in wet winters. Young seedling plants unless protected by dead leaves during the winter often perish. On the lighter soils there is less danger from winter loss, but the plants are more liable to damage from drought in summer. One of the principal insect pests that attack Belladonna leaves is the so-called 'flea-beetle.' It perforates the leaves to such an extent as to make them unfit for sale in a dried state. It is when the plants are exposed to too much sunlight in open spots that the attacks of the beetle are worst, its natural habitat being well-drained slopes, partly under trees. If therefore the ground around the plants is covered with a thick mulch of leaves, they are not so likely to be attacked. The caterpillars from which the beetles come feed on the ground, and as they dislike moisture, the damp leaves keep them away. If naphthalene is scattered on the soil, the vapour will probably help to keep the beetles off. The only way to catch them is to spread greased sheets of paper below the plants, and whenever the plants are disturbed a number of beetles will jump off like fleas and be caught on the papers. This at best only lessens the total quantity, however, and the other methods of precaution are the best.

The plant is dug or ploughed up during the autumn in the fourth year and the root collected, washed and dried, 3 to 4 tons of fresh root yielding a little over 1 ton of dry root. In time of great scarcity, it would probably pay to dig the root in the third year. Old roots must be replaced by a planting of young ones or offsets, and if wireworm is observed, soot should be dug in with replacements.

Although Belladonna is not a plant that can be successfully grown in every small garden, yet in a chalky garden a few plants might be grown in a shady corner for the sake of the seed, for which there is a demand for propagation. Those, also, who know the haunts of the plant in its wild state might profitably collect the ripe berries, which should then be put into thin cotton bags and the juice squeezed out in running water. When the water is no longer stained, wring the bag well and turn out the seeds on to blotting paper and dry in the sun, or in a warm room near a stove. Sieve them finally, when dry, to remove all portions of the berry skin, etc.

Belladonna has been successfully cultivated in the neighbourhood of Leningrad since 1914, and already good crops have been obtained, the richness of the stems in alkaloids being noteworthy. It is stated that in consequence of the success that has attended the cultivation of Belladonna in Russia, it will no longer be needful to employ German drugs in the preparation of certain alkaloids. Much is also being collected wild in the Caucasus and in the Crimea. It is hoped that if sufficient stocks can be raised in Britain, not only will it be unnecessary to import Belladonna, but that it may be possible to export it to those of our Dominions where the climate and local conditions prevent its successful culture, though at present it is still included among the medicinal plants of which the exportation is forbidden.

The following note on the growth and cultivation of Belladonna is from the Chemist and Druggist, of February 26, 1921:

'Belladonna is a perennial, but for horticultural purposes it is treated as a biennial, or triennial plant. The root in 3 years has attained very large dimensions around Edinburgh; in fact, often so large as to make the lifting a very heavy, and therefore costly, matter, and in consequence 2 years' growth is quite sufficient. One-year-old roots are just as active as the three-year-old stocks, and to the grower it is merely a matter of expediency which crop he chooses to dig up. The aerial growth is very heavy, two-year-old plants making 5 to 6 feet in the season if not cut for first crop, and if cut in July they make a second growth of 2 to 3 feet by September.

To obtain a supply of seeds certain plantations must be left uncut, so as to get a crop of seeds for the next season. Moisture is, from a practical point of view, a very important matter. A sample, apparently dry to the touch, but not crisp, may have 15 per cent, to 20 per cent, of moisture present. Therefore if a pharmacist was to use a sample of such Belladonna leaves, although assayed to contain 0-03 per cent, of alkaloids, he would produce a weaker tincture than if he had used leaves with, say, only 5 per cent, of water present. The alkaloidal factor of this drug is the index to its value. Both the British and the United States Pharmacopoeias adopt the same standard of alkaloidal value for the leaves, but the British Pharmacopoeia does not require a standard for the root, which is one of those subtle conundrums which this quaint book frequently presents!

Plants grown in a hard climate, such as Scotland, give a good alkaloidal figure, which compares favourably with any others. For roots, the British Pharmacopoeia as just stated, requires no standard, but United States Pharmacopoeia standard is 0-45 per cent., and Scottish roots yielded 0-78 per cent, and 0-72 per cent. There is not a great deal of alkaloidal value in the stalks. About 0-08 in the autumn.

Constituents. The medicinal properties of Belladonna depend on the presence of Hyoscyamine and Atropine. The root is the basis of the principal preparations of Belladonna. The total alkaloid present in the root varies between 0-1 and 0-6 per cent., but as much as 1 per cent, has been found, consisting of Hyoscyamine and its isomer Atropine, 0-1to 0-6 per cent.; Belladonnine and occasionally, Atropamine. Starch and Atrosin, a red colouring principle, are also present in the root. Scopolamine (hyoscine) is also found in traces, as is a fluorescent principle similar to that found in horse-chestnut bark and widely distributed through the natural order Solanaceae. The greater portion of the alkaloidal matter consists of Hyoscyamine, and it is possible that any Atropine found is produced during extraction.

The amount of alkaloids present in the leaves varies somewhat in wild or cultivated plants, and according to the methods of drying and storing adopted, as well as on the conditions of growth, soil, weather, etc.

The proportion of the total alkaloid present in the dried leaves varies from 0-3 to 0-7 per cent. The greater proportion consists of Hyoscyamine, the Atropine being produced during extraction, as in the root. Belladonnine and Apoatropine may also be formed during extraction from the drug. The leaves contain also a trace of Scopolamine, Atrosin and starch. The British Pharmacopoeia directs that the leaves should not contain less than 0-3 per cent, of alkaloids and the root not less than 0-45 per cent. A standardized liquid extract is prepared, from which the official plaster, alcoholic extract, liniment, suppository, tincture and ointment are made. The green extract is prepared from the fresh leaves.

Medicinal Action and Uses. Narcotic, diuretic, sedative, antispasmodic, mydriatic. Belladonna is a most valuable plant in the treatment of eye diseases, Atropine, obtained during extraction, being its most important constituent on account of its power of dilating the pupil. Atropine will have this effect in whatever way used, whether internally, or injected under the skin, but when dropped into the eye, a much smaller quantity suffices, the tiny discs oculists using for this purpose, before testing their patient's sight for glasses, being made of gelatine with 1/5000 grain of Atropine in each, the entire disk only weighing 1/50 grain. Scarcely any operation on the eye can safely be performed without the aid of this valuable drug. It is a strong poison, the amount given internally being very minute, 1/200 to 1/100 grain.

As an antidote to Opium, Atropine may be injected subcutaneously, and it has also been used in poisoning by Calabar bean and in Chloroform poisoning. It has no action on the voluntary muscles, but the nerve endings in involuntary muscles are paralysed by large doses, the paralysis finally affecting the central nervous system, causing excitement and delirium.

The various preparations of Belladonna have many uses. Locally applied, it lessens irritability and pain, and is used as a lotion, plaster or liniment in cases of neuralgia, gout, rheumatism and sciatica. As a drug, it specially affects the brain and the bladder. It is used to check excessive secretions and to allay inflammation and to check the sweating of phthisis and other exhausting diseases. Small doses allay cardiac palpitation, and the plaster is applied to the cardiac region for the same purpose, removing pain and distress.

It is a powerful antispasmodic in intestinal colic and spasmodic asthma. Occasionally the leaves are employed as an ingredient of cigarettes for relieving the latter. It is well borne by children, and is given in large doses in whooping cough and false croup. For its action on the circulation, it is given in the collapse of pneumonia, typhoid fever and other acute diseases. It increases the rate of the heart by some 20 to 40 beats per minute, without diminishing its force. It is of value in acute sore throat, and relieves local inflammation and congestion.

Hahnemann proved that tincture of Belladonna given in very small doses will protect from the infection of scarlet fever, and at one time Belladonna leaves were held to be curative of cancer, when applied externally as a poultice, either fresh or dried and powdered. Belladonna plasters are often applied, after a fall, to the injured or sprained part. A mixture of Belladonna plaster, Salicylic acid and Lead plaster is recommended as an application for corns and bunions.

Preparations and Dosages. Powdered leaves, 1 to 2 grains. Powdered root, 1 to 5 grains. Fluid extract leaves, 1 to 3 drops. Fluid extract root, B.P., � to 1 drop. Tincture, B.P., 5 to 15 drops. Alkaloid Atropine, Alcoholic extract, B.P., � to 1 grain. Green extract, B.P., � to 1 grain. Juice, B.P., 5 to 15 drops. Liniment, B.P. Plaster, B.P. and U.S.P. Ointment, B.P.


3. Boericke�s Homoeopathic Materia Medica.

BELLADONNA (Deadly Nightshade)
Belladonna acts upon every part of the nervous system, producing active congestion, furious excitement, perverted special senses, twitching, convulsions and pain. It has a marked action on the vascular system, skin and glands. Belladonna always is associated with hot, red skin, flushed face, glaring eyes, throbbing carotids, excited mental state, hyperesthesia of all senses, delirium, restless sleep, convulsive movements, dryness of mouth and throat with aversion to water, neuralgic pains that come and go suddenly. [Oxylropis.] Heal, redness, throbbing and burning. Great children's remedy. Epileptic spasms followed by nausea and vomiting. Scarlet fever and also prophylactic. Here use the thirtieth potency. Exophthalmic goitre. Corresponds to the symptoms of "air-sickness" in aviators. Give as preventive. No thirst, anxiety or fear. Belladonna stands for violence of attack and suddenness of onset. Bell, for the extreme of thyroid toxaemia. Use 1x (Beebe).

Mind.� Patient lives in a world of his own, engrossed by specters and visions and oblivious to surrounding realities. While the retina is insensible to actual objects, a host of visual hallucinations throng about him and come to him from within. He is acutely alive and crazed by a flood of subjective visual impressions and fantastic illusions. Hallucinations; sees monsters, hideous faces. Delirium; frightful images; furious; rages, bites, strikes; desire to escape. Loss of consciousness. Disinclined to talk. Perversity, with tears. Acuteness of all senses. Changeableness.

Head.� Vertigo, with falling to left side or backwards. Sensitive to least contact. Much throbbing and heat. Palpitation reverberating in head with labored breathing. Pain; fullness, especially in forehead, also occiput, and temples. Headache from suppressed catarrhal flow. Sudden outcries. Pain worse light, noise, jar, lying down and in afternoon; better by pressure and semi-erect posture. Boring of head into pillow; drawn backward and rolls from side to side. Constant moaning. Hair splits; is dry and comes out. Headache worse on right side and when lying down; ill effects, colds, etc.; from having hair cut.

Face.� Red, bluish-red, hot, swollen, shining; convulsive motion of muscles of face. Swelling of upper lip. Facial neuralgia with twitching muscles and flushed face.

Eyes.� Throbbing deep in eyes on lying down. Pupils dilated. [Agnus.] Eyes feel swollen and protruding, staring, brilliant; conjunctiva red; dry, burn; photophobia; shooting in eyes. Exophthalmus. Ocular illusions; fiery appearance. Diplopia, squinting, spasms of lids. Sensation as if eyes were half closed. Eyelids swollen. Fundus congested.

Ears.� Tearing pain in middle and external ear. Humming noises. Membrana tympani bulges and injected. Parotid gland swollen. Sensitive to loud tones. Hearing very acute. Otitis media. Pain causes delirium. Child cries out in sleep; throbbing and beating pain deep in ear, synchronous with heart beat, Hematoma auris. Acute and sub-acute conditions of Eustachian tube. Autophony � hearing one's voice in ear.

Nose.� Imaginary odors. Tingling in tip of nose. Red and swollen. Bleeding of nose, with red face. Coryza; mucus mixed with blood.

Mouth.� Dry. Throbbing pain in teeth. Gumboil. Tongue red on edges. Strawberry tongue. Grinding of teeth. Tongue swollen and painful. Stammering.

Throat.� Dry, as if glazed; angry-looking congestion [Ginseng]; red, worse on right side. Tonsils enlarged; throat feels constricted; difficult deglutition; worse, liquids. Sensation of a lump. (Esophagus dry; feels contracted. Spasms in throat. Continual inclination to swallow. Scraping sensation. Muscles of deglutition very sensitive. Hypertrophy of mucous membrane.

Stomach.� Loss of appetite. Averse to meat and milk. Spasmodic pain in epigastrium. Constriction; pain runs to spine. Nausea and vomiting. Great thirst for cold water. Spasms of stomach. Empty retching. Abhorrence of liquids. Spasmodic hiccough. Dread of drinking. Uncontrollable vomiting.

Abdomen.� Distended, hot. Transverse colon protrudes like a pad. Tender, swollen. Pain as if clutched by a hand; worse, jar, pressure. Cutting pain across; stitches in left side of abdomen, when coughing, sneezing, or touching it. Extreme sensitiveness to touch, bed-clothes, etc. [Laches.]

Stools.� Thin, green, dysenteric; in lumps like chalk. Shuddering during stool. Stinging pain in rectum; spasmodic stricture. Piles more sensitive with backache. Prolapsus ani. [Ignatia; Podoph.]

Urine.� Retention. Acute urinary infections. Sensation of motion in bladder as of a worm. Urine scanty, with tenesmus; dark and turbid, loaded with phosphates. Vesicle region sensitive. Incontinence, continuous dropping. Frequent and profuse. Haematuria where no pathological condition can be found. Prostatic hypertrophy.

Male.� Testicles hard, drawn up, inflamed. Nocturnal sweat of genitals. Flow of Prostatic fluid. Desire diminished.

Female.� Sensitive forcing downwards, as if all the viscera would protrude at genitals. Dryness and heat of vagina. Dragging around loins. Pain in sacrum. Menses increased; bright red, too early, too profuse. Hemorrhage hot. Cutting pain from hip to hip. Menses and lochia very offensive and hot. Labor-pains come and go suddenly. Mastitis pain, throbbing, redness, streaks radiate from nipple. Breasts feel heavy; are hard and red. Tumors of breast, pain worse lying down. Badly smelling haemorrhages, hot gushes of blood. Diminished lochia.

Respiratory.� Drying in nose, fauces, larynx, and trachea. Tickling, short, dry cough; worse at night. Larynx feels sore. Respiration oppressed, quick, unequal. Cheyne-Stokes respiration [Cocain; Opium.] Hoarse; loss of voice. Painless hoarseness. Cough with pain in left hip. Barking cough, whooping cough, with pain in stomach before attack, with expectoration of blood. Stitches in chest when coughing. Larynx very painful; feels as if a foreign body were in it, with cough. High, piping voice. Moaning at every breath.

Heart.� Violent palpitation, reverberating in head, with labored breathing. Palpitation from least exertion. Throbbing all through body. Dichrotism. Heart seemed too large. Rapid but weakened pulse.

Extremities.� Shooting pains along limbs. Joints swollen, red, shining, with red streaks radiating. Tottering gait. Shifting rheumatic pains. Phlegmasia alba dolens. Jerking limbs. Spasms. Involuntary limping. Cold extremities.

Back.� Stiff neck. Swelling of glands of neck. Pain in nape, as if it would break. Pressure on dorsal region most painful. Lumbago, with pain in hips and thighs.

Skin.� Dry and hot; swollen, sensitive; burns scarlet, smooth. Eruption like scarlatina, suddenly spreading. Erythema; pustules on face. Glands swollen, tender, red. Boils. Acne rosacea. Suppurative wounds. Alternate redness and paleness of the skin. Indurations after inflammations. Erysipelas.

Fever.� A high feverish state with comparative absence of toxaemia. Burning, pungent, steaming, heat. Feet icy cold. Superficial blood-vessels, distended. Perspiration dry only on head. No thirst with fever.

Sleep.� Restless, crying out, gritting of teeth. Kent awake by pulsation of blood-vessels. Screams out in sleep. Sleeplessness, with drowsiness. Starting when closing the eyes or during sleep. Sleeps with hands under head. [Ars.; Plat.]

Modalities.� Worse, touch, jar, noise, draught, after noon, lying down. Better, semi-erect.

Relationship.� Compare: Sanguisorba officinalis 2x-6x, a member of the Rosaceae family, (Profuse, long-lasting menses, especially in nervous patients with congestive symptoms to head and limbs. Passive hemorrhages at climacteric. Chronic metritis. Hemorrhage from lungs. Varices and ulcers). Mandragora�(Mandrake). A narcotic of the ancients�Restless excitability and bodily weakness. Desire for sleep. Has antiperiodic properties like China and Aranea. Useful in epilepsy and hydrophobia, also Cetonia (A. E. Lavine). Hyos. (less fever, more agitation); Stram. (more sensorial excitement, frenzy); Hoitzia�A Mexican drug, similar in action to Bellad. (Useful in fever, scarlatinal eruption, measles, urticaria, etc. High fever with eruptive fevers. Dry mouth and throat, red face, injected eyes, delirium.) Calcar is often required after Bell.; Atropia. Alkaloid of Belladonna covers more the neurotic sphere of the Belladonna action. (Great dryness of throat, almost impossible to swallow. Chronic stomach affections, with great pain and vomiting of all food. Peritonitis. All kind of illusions of sight. Everything appears large. Platina, opposite.) Hypochlorhydria; pyrosis. Motes over everything. On reading, words run together; double vision, all objects seem to be elongated. Eustachian tube and tympanic congestion. Affinity for the pancreas. Hyperacidity of stomach. Paroxysms of gastric pain; ovarian neuralgia.)

Non-Homoeopathic Uses.� Atropia and its salts are used for ophthalmic purposes, to dilate the pupil and paralyze the accommodation.

Given internally or hypodermically, it is antagonistic to Opium and Morphine. Physostigma and Prussic Acid. Narcotic poisons and mushroom poisoning. Renal colic 1-200 of a grain hypodermically. Atropin injected subcutaneously in doses from a millegram upwards for intestinal obstruction threatening life.

Hypodermically 1-80 gr. night sweats in phthisis. Atropia 1-20 gr. is antagonistic to 1 gr. Morphine. Also used as a local anesthetic, antispasmodic, and to dry up secretions, milk, etc. Hypodermically 1-80 gr. night sweats in phthisis.

Dose.� Atropia Sulph., 1-120 to 1-60 grain.

Antidotes to Belladonna: Camph.; Coff.; Opium; Acon.

Complementary: Cak. Bellad. (contains lime). Especially in semi-chronic and constitutional diseases.

Incompatible: Acet. ac.

Dose.� First to thirtieth potency and higher. Must be repeated frequently in acute diseases.

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