Volatile Oils of Australia.
Part 1.
Part 2.
Compiled and edited by Ivor Hughes

Introduction: The following compilation is reproduced from some old documents in my possession. Which in turn were taken from a book published in the mid 19th century, entitled Australian Native Plants. The author is unknown to me. Perhaps some of the site Australian users may be able to shed more light on the matter?

OILS; (VOLATILE OR ESSENTIAL.) 1. Andropogon Schoenanthus, Linn.
(Syn., A. Martini, Roxb A.citratum, DC.; Cymbopogon Schoenanthus,Sprang,);
N.O., Gramineae, B.F1. vii., 534.

This sweet-scented grass is distilled in India, and yields the fragrant, often adulterated Rusa or Citronelle oil of commerce, one of the "Grass" or "Verbena" oils. In one experiment Dr. Dymock obtained 1 lb. 5� ozs. of oil from 373lbs. of grass. It is much used by the Arabs and Turks as a hair-oil.


2. Angiopteris evecta, Hoffm.; N.O., Filices, B.F1. vii., 694.
This plant yields an aromatic oil, said to be used in the South Sea Islands for perfuming Cocoa-nut oil. (Woolls.)

3. Atherosperma moschata, Labill.; N.O., Monimiaceae, B.F1. v,, 284." Native Sassafras." The oil obtained by aqueous distillation from the bark is thin, unctious, pale-yellow when fresh, but becomes yellowish-brown with age. (That obtained from the leaves is a distinct essential oil, is of a greenish colour, and resembles oil of mace. It requires further examination. Bosisto.) It resembles, in odour, ordinary sassafras oil, with an admixture of oil of caraways. The taste is aromatic, bitter, and prickly to the tongue. Sp. gr. 1.04. Boils at 230� to 245�. (Report of the London Exhibition 0/1862.) One hundred pounds of the bark yielded, in one case, 18 oz. 6dr. of the oil.

In large quantities it must be regarded as a dangerous poison. Rubbed externally upon the skin it does not, like myrtaceous oils, act as a rubefacient or irritant. An extract of this bark is preferred medicinally, as the essential oil is said to have a lowering effect on the heart. The latter is, however, given in certain circumstances, in doses of one or two drops.
Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales.

4. Backhousia citriodora, F.V.M., N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FI., m., 270.
The dry leaves yield a slightly acid essential oil of specific gravity .887. (Staiger.) By age it becomes yellowish and resinous. (Bancroft.) In the report of Messrs. Schimmel & Co., Dresden, (Pharm. Journ., 28th April, 1888), the following statements are made in regard to this oil: " Sp. gr., .900; boils from 223� to 233�. Both these oils (Eucalyptus Staigeriana is also referred to) are distinguished by an intense odour of lemon or verbena, and for the Backhousia oil especially, there is probably a future. The most important constituent of the two oils is a ketone (C10 H16O ?) with a strong, pure, lemon odour. The oil of E. Staigeriana contain a considerable quantity of a terpene, whilst that of Backhousia citriodora appears to consist principally of the previously mentioned ketone."

5. Eucalyptus spp., N.O., Myrtaceae;, " Eucalyptus Oil."
The remarks which appear in journals in regard to experiments with Eucalyptus oil do not allude, as a very general rule, to the oil of any particular species of Eucalypt. The oils from some of the commonest species appear to be more or less similar, but there are most important differences between some of them, and each will be described under its species-name. The following preliminary remarks apply to Eucalyptus oils in general. See also remarks under the head of " Eucalyptus." ("Drugs.") Eucalyptus oil is only obtained, in practice, from the leaves; (it is also contained in the flower-buds.) In Payen's Industrial Chemistry (Paul), p. 724, it is said to be obtained in part from the flowers. This is scarcely correct, except as a theoretical source.

Robert has made a number of experiments with Eucalyptus oil, and comes to the conclusion that it possesses the power to destroy bacteria or animal life, and can well be classed with antiseptics. In order to test the properties of volatile antiseptics on animal life found in decomposing liquids, he made a number of experiments with an infusion of hay-seeds placed in a bottle and exposed to the atmosphere; in the course of a few days the liquid became turbid and slimy, but if a few drops of the oil of Eucalyptus were added the liquid remained clear. The oil being volatile, some micrococci were exposed to the vapour, the action of which caused a destruction of the animalcules.

Some surgeons have employed a spray of Eucalyptus oil during operations, thereby destroying every possibility of germs entering from the surrounding atmosphere; the wound is then dressed in the ordinary manner, and the results have been very promising. (Med. Chirurg., Cent, blatt.)

As an antiseptic, it has the advantage over carbolic acid that it is not caustic; also, it is more than three times as powerful as that substance in preventing the development of bacteria ; and is, moreover, not so poisonous, Eighty minims may be taken in two and a half hours. {Practitioner, xxv., 212.) Air impregnated with Eucalyptus oil vapour is recommended as a substitute for the carbolic spray. (British Medical Journal, ii., 1882, 420.)

As a surgical dressing, gauze' dipped in a solution of the oil 3, alcohol 15, and water 150. This gauze may be left undisturbed four or five days. (Lancet, ii., 1880, 387. See Martindale and Westcott's Extra Pharmacopeia.)

Therapeutic Action. " In considering the medicinal effect of the oils of Eucalyptus, it must be remembered that we are dealing with bodies of simple composition, and, consequently, different from those complex compounds of the type of the well-known energetic poisons.

The hydrocarbon character of the Eucalyptus oils, together with their low specific gravity, varying from 0.880 to 0.911, points to their rapid diffusibility when taken internally. Analogous compounds, such as camphor, alcohol, and conia, afford the key to their action. The immediate effect of each of the bodies just named is well known to be on the cerebro-spinal nervous system ; any one of these taken in large doses produces more or less complete flaccidity of the muscular system, and ultimately produces a state of inebriation and unconsciousness; a similar result follows extreme doses of Eucalyptus oil. Medical men report that a small dose promotes appetite; a large one destroys it. In stronger doses of 10 to 20 minims, it first accelerates the pulse, produces pleasant general excitement (shown by irresistible desire for moving about), and a feeling of buoyancy and strength. It is intoxicating in very large doses, but, unlike alcohol or opium, the effects are not followed by torpor, but produce a general calmness and soothing sleep. The antidote for an overdose is also alike in character, viz., a strong cup of coffee, without milk or sugar, which speedily removes any alarming symptoms. Now these results, as compared with the medicinal action of Conium maculatum, are very striking � an overdose of this drug leaves the intelligence and sensory system intact, while it paralyses the motor system; overdoses of Eucalyptus produce similar results.

The bitterness left on the palate after taking Eucalyptus oil is evidently due to a principle isomeric with the oil, not separable. It is probably in the active agent, so often referred to by medical writers when urging the anti-periodic properties of the oil." ( Therapeutic Gazette.)

Dr. Leighton Kesteven (Practitioner, May, 1885) use! Eucalyptus oil methodically in an epidemic of typhoid fever. The doses were at first two to five drops, made into an emulsion of mucilage. but latterly he employed 10 minims every four hours. In cases in which the drug does not agree with the stomach, careful emulsification and the addition of half a drachm each of aromatic spirits of ammonia, spirits of chloroform, and glycerine, will often remove the nauseous taste. Dr. Kesteven reports that in 220 cases treated in 18 months he only had four deaths.

Dr. J. H. Mussen, of Philadelphia, furnishes a paper to The Therapeutic Gazette, of July, 1886, "On the Value of Oil of Eucalyptus in some Malarial Affections." The following are his conclusions:

1. That the oil of Eucalyptus is of decided value in about one third of all cases of intermitting malarial fever.

2. That it has no specific value in any one type of the disease.

3. That the longer the duration of the disease, the less likely it is to do good.

4. That relapses are not prevented by it.

5. That its influence on the spleen has not been demonstrated.

6. That a dose of five drops four times daily has been a sufficient dose, but that five drops every three hours would be of greater value possibly.

7. That good results are not attained as quickly as by large doses of quinine, but that a good effect should be noticed within five days at least.

An emulsion may be made by putting equal quantities of gum arable and the oil into a dry bottle, adding 40 parts of water, more or less, and shaking well. This is useful, for example, as a urethral injection or lotion, and maybe given internally in one to four drachm doses.

Eucalyptus oil in general is employed, usually mixed with an equal quantity of olive oil, as a rubefacient in cases of rheumatism, lumbago, sciatica, chronic hepatitis, asthma, bronchitis and sprains. It is also an anthelmintic, 30 to 60 minims being injected per anum in mucilage of starch. It has been successfully used in the treatment of diphtheria, not that it possesses any specific action in this disease, but " in its local action it seems to be all that can be desired."

It has also been recommended for deodorising iodoform and other drugs. It has been largely used in gynaecological practice in America, with good results.

In diphtheria, a mixture of 5 grammes of oil, 25 grammes of rectified spirit, and 170 grammes of water used for 10 inhalations, or equal parts of the oil and rectified spirit, of which 10 to 60 drops were used for an inhalation. {Medical Times and Gazette, ii., 1879, 214. See also Lancet, ii., 1883,362.)

In gynaecological practice, pessaries, composed of six drachms of Eucalyptus oil, and four drachms each of oil of theobroma and white wax divided into twelve, one night and morning, or at night only, found useful after parturition, checks fetor and decomposition of lochial discharge ; and five minims of Eucalyptus oil mixed with 20 of olive oil, used and recommended as a hypodermic injection for pyaemia. (Lancet, ii., 1882, 343, quoted by Martindale and Westcott.)

The following preparation is to be found in the British Pharmacopoeia (1885) : �

Oleum Eucalypti (oil of Eucalyptus).
The oil distilled from the fresh leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.), Eucalyptus amygdalina (Labill.), and probably other species of Eucalyptus.

Characters and Tests. Colourless, or pale straw-coloured, becoming darker and thicker by exposure. It has an aromatic odour, and a spicey and pungent flavour, leaving a sense of coldness in the mouth. It is neutral to litmus paper. Specific gravity about 900. Soluble in about an equal weight of alcohol. Dose, one to four minims.

Preparation, Unguentum Eucalypti.
Ungentum Eucalypti. Ointment of Eucalyptus. Take of Oil of Eucalyptus, by weight, 1 ounce, or 1 part. Of soft and hard Paraffin 2 ounces each ' Or 2 Parts' Melt the hard and soft paraffin�s together, add the oil, and stir until cold."

The following preparations in which Eucalyptus oil is the active ingredient, are taken from the Extra. Pharmacopoeia of Martindale and Westcott:�

 Eucalyptus gauze (Carbasus Eucalypti). In 6-yard pieces. Unbleached cotton gauze, impregnated with
Oil of Eucalyptus ... ... ...  1
Dammar Resin ... ... ... ...  3
Paraffin ... ... ... ... ...         3
An antiseptic surgical dressing. In using it there is no danger of poisonous absorption of the antiseptic, as with carbolic acid gauze. (Lancet, i., 1881, 828 ; B.M.J., i., 1881, 850.)

Iodoform and Eucalyptus Bougies (Cereolus Iodoformi et Eucalypti.)
Iodoform, precipitated .. ... 5 grains.
Oil of Eucalyptus ... ... 10 minims.
Oil of Theobroma ... ... 35 grains.
To make one bougie 4 inches long. Used to arrest gonorrhea.

Unguentum Iodoformi et Eucalypti.
Iodoform ... ... ... 60 grains.
Oil of Eucalyptus ... ... 1 ounce.
Heat gently till dissolved, and add to
Paraffin ... ... ... ... 2� ounces.
Vaseline... ... ... ... 2� ounces.
Melted together. Stir till cold.

Eucalyptol (C12H20O) is contained in large quantity in the oils of some species of Eucalyptus. It is not present in E. amygdalina, but E. globulus contains it abundantly. The crude oil contains also a number of products boiling between 188� and 190� and about 200�, the Eucalyptol being contained in the portion which passes over between 170� and 178�, from which it may be obtained pure by contact, first with solid potassium hydrate, then with calcium chloride, and subsequent distillation.

Eucalyptol boils at 175�, has a specific gravity of .905 at 8�, and turns the plane of polarization to the right. Its molecular rotatory power is 10.42� for a length of 100 mm. It is slightly soluble in water, and dissolves completely in alcohol; the dilute solution has an odour of roses. Vapour density observed = 5.92, calculated = 6.22. Ordinary nitric acid slowly attacks Eucalyptol, forming, among other products, an acid probably analogous to camphoric acid. Strong sulphuric acid blackens Eucalyptol, and water separates from the product a tarry body which yields by distillation a volatile hydrocarbon.

Eucalyptol heated with phosphoric anhydride gives up water, and yields Eucalyptene (q.v.). At the same time there is formed another liquid, Eucalyptolene, which has the same composition, but boils above 300�.

Eucalyptol absorbs a large quantity of dry hydrogen chloride, the liquid first solidifying to a crystalline mass, which, however, afterwards liquefies, with separation of water, and formation of a body apparently identical with Eucalyptene. (Cl�ez, in Watts Dict, ii., Suppt., p. 492.)

Later experiments by Faust have, however, modified those of Cl�ez, above described, inasmuch as the body called Eucalyptol has been found to be a mixture of about 70 percent, of Eucalyptene and 30 per cent, cymene. After rectification over sodium, it boils between 171� and 174�. It dissolves in all proportions in absolute alcohol, ether, and chloroform, and in about 15 parts of 90 percent, alcohol; has the odour of a fine terpene; detonates with iodine; absorbs oxygen with avidity ; turns brown with strong sulphuric acid, and is converted by oxidation with dilute nitric acid into paratoluic and terephthalic acids.

The Eucalyptene and cymene contained in Eucalyptol cannot be separated by fractional distillation. To obtain the cymene, the mixture was shaken with sulphuric acid diluted with one-fourth part of water, and then heated, whereby the Eucalyptene was polymerised ; then, after three days, the liquid was mixed with water and distilled, whereby a distillate was obtained, consisting of cymene, which, after repeated rectification over sodium, boiled at 173� to 174�.

The camphoroidal body, C10 H16 O, is a colourless oily liquid which becomes faintly yellowish on exposure to light, boils at 216 to 218�, is insoluble in aqueous potash, and yields cymene when distilled with phosphorus pentasulphide. Its analysis gave numbers intermediate between those required by the formulae CH10H14O and C10H16O, but the reactions of the body show that it is not an oxycymene. (Watts' Dict., 3rd Suppt., Part i., p. 761.)

Eucalyptol is employed as a therapeutic agent in diphtheritic and bronchial affections. About one teaspoonful, with half a pint of water, is placed in the inhaler. It is also administered internally in mucilage, syrup, or glycerine, the dose being from three to five drops in those vehicles.

Eucalyptene (see "Eucalyptol").

Oppenheim and Pfaff have examined Eucalyptus oil (probably obtained from E. odorata and E. amygdalina). By repeated treatment with potash, washing with water, and fractionation, it yielded Eucalyptene (C10 H16), boiling at 172 to175� and having a vapour-density of 68.55 and 68.22 (calc. 68, H = 1). This hydrocarbon did not form a crystallised compound with hydrochloric acid, or yield a crystallised hydrate when left for six months in contact with nitric acid and alcohol. When treated with half the calculated quantity of iodine it was converted into cymene, C10 H14, which, when oxidised with dilute nitric acid, yielded paratoluic acid, melting at 173� � 175�. The crude oil did not yield any oxidised compound answering to the Eucalyptol of Cl�ez. ( Watts' Diet., 3rd Suppt, Ft. i., p. 761.)

Algeria and California are now powerful competitors with Australia in the production of Eucalyptus oil. It is affirmed that Algeria alone is now in a position to supply the whole world with Eucalyptus globulus oil, and that a large quantity is available from California, where it is produced as a bye-product in the manufacture of anti-calcaire preparation for boilers. The production of Eucalyptus oil appears, moreover, to be increasing in Australia, where it has spread from Victoria* to South Australia, whilst in Tasmania, also, a company has been formed for the distillation of different species of Eucalyptus. A statement made in a previous report that the Australian oil from Eucalyptus amygdalina contains no Eucalyptol, and is inferior in this respect to the Eucalyptus globulus oil from Algeria and California, was subsequently challenged and stigmatised as' "distinctly erroneous." Messrs. Schimmel, however, now reaffirm that statement, and say that the fraction of the amygdalina oil, separable at a temperature of I76� - I77�C, has a specific gravity of 0.886 at I5�C (Eucalyptol has a specific gravity of 0.930), and is probably a mixture of terpene (Eucalyptene, C10 H16) and a small quantity of cymol." (Pharm. Journ., 1888.)

* Eucalyptus oil is distilled in quantity in New South Wales.

The following excerpt from the India-rubber and Gutta-percha Journal, 1887, on the subject of Eucalyptus leaves for preventing and removing scale in boilers is interesting, and may perhaps be mentioned under this head, pending the settlement of the question as to what constituent or constituents in the leaves causes the action stated. The matter is worthy of consideration by steam-users in Australia, to whom illimitable supplies of gum leaves are available for experiment.

" Boiler cleaning is an important subject to all users of steam power. The extract from the leaves of the Eucalyptus, or blue gum (which has recently been found so efficacious for the above-named purpose), is procured by boiling the leaves in a battery of boilers under a pressure of 4olb. of steam. Twenty tons of leaves are boiled every day, and the boilers, after constant use of two years, are as sound as when they came from the shop. Extract of Eucalyptus globulus, or blue gum, has been tested by Professor E. W. Hilgard, of the Agricultural Department of the University of California, in respect to its contents of tannin, its taste being highly astringent. It was found that a standardised tannin solution would precipitate 0.337 per cent, only of tannin; that beyond these limits either tannin or gelatine solution would produce a precipitate of about equal amount. After removing the tannin as far as possible, by digestion with animal membrane, the acid reaction shown by the extract was found to be equivalent to only 0.127 per cent, of sulphuric acid, an amount so small that it is doubtful whether the cleansing action upon the boilers can be attributed to acid in solution. In most instances scale will be lessened during the first application, but in others, where the scale is hard, it does not begin to move for six weeks or more: The extract does not act suddenly on the scale, but on close observation good results will be immediately seen. The liquid may be put in through the manhole, feed-pipe, safety-valve, condenser, or hot-well. After it is put in no new scale will form, and the iron will cease to rust."

6. Eucalyptus amygdalina, Labill.; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.F1. iii., 202.
" Peppermint." " Mountain Ash." (For the numerous botanical synonyms and vernacular names of this tree, see " Timbers.")

This species is far richer in oil than any other Eucalypt, the average yield from the leaves being demonstrated by Mr. Bosisto at about 3 per cent. The distilled oil is pale-yellow, thin, of rather pungent cajuput - like odour, resembling, but coarser than, lemons; of a cooling, but afterwards bitter taste, of specific gravity at 15�, .881 (later experiments give .856 for rectified, and .865 for non-rectified), boiling point 329� to 370�F., and it deposits stearoptene at low temperatures (18� which melts at 3�). It dissolves gutta-percha readily, and may be used in lamps like petroleum, with the important advantages of greater illuminating power, pleasant odour, and non-liability to explosion, but it is much more expensive than the latter. (Mueller.) Some of this oil was exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 1862. The price quoted was six shillings per gallon, and the jurors proceed to remark :� " Three ounces of the oil were sufficient to scent very strongly eight pounds of soap, at a cost of about one farthing per pound. The perfume produced by this oil alone would, however, be considered by some more peculiar than agreeable, and we obtained a much better result by combining it in a second experiment with oils of cassia, cloves, and lavender, which mixture yielded a very pleasant fragrance."

The "Oil of Eucalyptus "in general use, is frequently obtained from E. amygdalina, and not from E. globulus, being more abundant, much cheaper, and containing the usual remedial properties assigned to Eucalyptus oil. It is very fluid, almost devoid of colour, has a persistent and camphoraceous odour, is slightly soluble in water, but completely so in alcohol, oils, fats, and paraffin. It is not caustic, like carbolic acid, nor does it produce much irritation of the skin, unless applied with extreme friction ; in that case the application of an emollient will speedily give relief. It is very destructive to low organic growth. It is a powerful antiseptic, and by some practitioners stated to be more than three times as strong as carbolic acid in preventing the development of bacteria. Its uses are manifold.

Messrs. Schimmel & Co., Dresden, state that this oil differs from all other Eucalyptus oils known to them, and contains, probably, scarcely any oxygenated constituents ; it more likely consists of at least one well-characterized terpene (C10 H16), and possibly a small quantity of cymol. Its specific gravity is 0.890 ; it boils practically between 170� and 180�, and is laevogyre. Observations on three different samples, gave, in a 100 mm. column, a rotatory power of 27�, 28.4�, and 28.6�; consequently, this property allows of it being easily distinguished from the dextrogyre oil of E. globulus. (Pharm. Journ., April, 1888.)

Messrs. Schimmel also allege, that in consequence of this oil having been proved to contain no Eucalyptol, the demand for it has fallen off. The following essential oil is described as from E. fissilis, a variety of E. amygdalina : Pale, reddish-yellow oil, of 0.903 sp. gr.; boils at 177� to 196�. (Wittstein and Mueller.)

Speaking of Eucalyptus oils, Mr. Bosisto says: (Pharm. Journ.) " People in England would always speak principally of E. globulin, but the fact is that it is considered in Australia to be the worst of the whole lot." Now the incorrect labelling of shipments from Australia has much to do with this practice, but it is hoped that scientific people throughout the world will use the correct species-name when they are able to do so. Mr. Leopold Field, the soap-maker (at a meeting of the Pharm. Soc., at the close of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition), said the oil they always obtained came to them in iron tins holding about 561bs., and it was labelled E. globulus, and sometimes, by way of a change, E. amygdalina, for the two things seemed exactly the same. They had had one sample of E. dumosa oil, which was vastly superior, and they had tried to get it again and again, but had never succeeded in getting a similar oil. The various Eucalyptus oils were of great interest to the soap-maker. E. citriodora oil was a very interesting substance, and might, if worked into soap, give the public very great satisfaction, inasmuch as the odour appeared to be pleasanter than lemon-grass, and not so sickly as that of citronelle. All the odours the various Eucalypti were capable of assuming had the peculiar property common to camphoraceous odours, and no doubt the soap-maker would be able to utilize them largely.

7. Eucalyptus Baileyana, F.v.M.; N.O., Myrtaceae, F.v.M., A " Stringybark."
The fresh leaves yield 0.9 per cent, of essential oil of .890 specific gravity, and having an acid reaction. (Staiger.) It is described as having a turpentine odour. "Strongly resinified; sp. gr. 0.940 ; boils between 160� and 185�. This oil, and those of E. microcorys and E. maculata, var. citriodora, are very similar to one another. They possess a magnificent melissa-like odour. It is thought they will prove to possess extraordinary practical value. Chemically, the three oils are quite characteristic. Neither of them contains a terpene, but they consist of a ketone (C10H6O), smelling like melissa, and a body that is probably an alcohol (C10 H18O ?), which possesses a beautiful odour resembling geranium. (Messrs. Schimmel & Co., Pharm. Journ. April, 1888.)
Near Brisbane (Queensland).

8. Eucalyptus Capitellata, Smith, N.O., Myrtaceae, B.F1., iii., 206. " Stringybark." (For names and synonyms, see " Timbers.")
Under the name of E, piperita, an account of this tree is given in a Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales, by John White, Esq., Surgeon-General to the Settlement, published in 1790. He (or rather Dr. Smith) says of it (p. 227): "The name of peppermint tree has been given to this plant by Mr. White on account of the very great resemblance between the essential oil drawn from its leaves and that obtained from the Peppermint (Mentha piperita) which grows in England. This oil was found by Mr. White to be much more efficacious in removing all colicky complaints than that of the English Peppermint, which he attributes to its being less pungent and more aromatic." Mr. White sent a quart or more of the essential oil from this, or other Eucalyptus leaves, to England. This was the commencement of what is now a flourishing industry, engaged in by
almost all the colonies, and capable of still greater expansion.
Victoria to Queensland.

9. Eucalyptus Corymbosa, Smith, (Syn. Metrosideros gummifera, Soland.) ; N.O., Myrtaceae,

" Blood-wood." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers.")
This essential oil smells slightly of lemons and roses; it tastes a little bitter; is somewhat camphor-like; is colourless, and of 0.881 sp. gr. at 15�. (Wittstein and Mueller.) Bosisto says, speaking of some experiments made by him (Trans. R.S., Victoria, vol. vi , 1861-4): "The material from this species had suffered from close packing and length of time in transit. The yield from 100 lbs. of leaves was 9oz 3drs. of pure, limpid oil, 6oz. 2drs. of oil containing resinous matter in suspension. Supposing one half of this latter part of the yield to consist of resinous matter, the net amount of oil from 100 lbs. will be I2�ozs."
Coastal districts 'of New South Wales and Southern Queensland.

10. Eucalyptus dumosa, A. Cunn., (Syn. E. lamprocarpa, F.v'M..; E. fruiticetorum, F.v.M.; E. santalifolia, Miq. (partly) non F.v.M.); N.O. Myrtaceae, B.F1., iii., 230. A " Mallee." Bunurduk of the aboriginals of the Lake Hindmarsh Station (Victoria).
The specific gravity of the essential oil of the leaves of this tree is about .912. It has a strong camphoraceous odour. Forms with E. gracilis, etc.
mallee country of Northern Victoria, Southern New South Wales and South Australia.

11. Eucalyptus globulus, Labill.; N.O., Myrtaceae, B.F1. iii., 225.
The common "Blue Gum" of Victoria and Tasmania. The " Fever Tree" of the Continent of Europe. (For other botanical synonyms and vernacular names, see " Timbers.")

This essential oil is very pale-yellow, thin, of cajuput-like odour, but is less disagreeable. It is cooling, and has a mint-like taste ; is of 0.917 sp. gr., and boils at 149� to 177�. (Wittstein and Mueller.) Later experiments give a specific gravity of .920. One hundred pounds of fresh gathered leaves yielded Mr. Bosisto 12�. of oil, and he adds that the supply of oil is greater after the leaves have changed from obovate to lanceolate, which is the case when the trees are from three to four years old. This oil darkens and becomes resinous on exposure to the light. The word "globulus " is taken by many dealers in Eucalyptus oils (in and outside the colonies) to be generic, so that many other oils of different species of Eucalyptus are sold as if they were the product of E. globulus.

In Walls' Dict,, 3rd Suppt., Part i., p. 61, it is stated that Faust has found that this oil contains a terpene boiling at 150�-151�, another terpene called Eucalyptene boiling at 172 to 175�, together with cymene, and a camphor-like body, C10H16O. The terpene boiling at 150� - 151� is present in small quantity only ; it takes fire with iodine, and resinises on exposure to the air. (See the remarks on " Eucalyptus oils " at the commencement of this genus.)

" The oil obtained in a first distillation corresponded in its general properties with the commercial French and Californian* distillates, but the distillation of it yielded some interesting information. This oil showed a specific gravity of 0.925, and was dextrogyre (+ 5�). The specific gravity of the commercial varieties referred to varies between 0.915 and 0.925, and though they are always dextrogyre, their rotatory power varies between 13� and 15.4�. Six commercial samples examined varied from 50 to 70 per cent, in the amount of Eucalyptol they contained, and as Eucalyptol is optically inactive, this property might be utilised in judging the quality of an oil. In distilling the leaves of E. globulus, aldehydes of the fatty acids were observed; the presence of valeraldehyde was determined with certainty, and apparently butyraldehyde, and probably capronaldehyde were also present. The greater part of these bodies was dissolved in the distillation water, but the valeraldehyde could also be detected in the oil; it was also present in two commercial samples of the oil." (Report of Messrs. Schimmel & Co., Dresden, in Pharm. Journ., April, 1888.)
Tasmania, Southern and Eastern Victoria, and Southern New South Wales.

12. Eucalyptus goniocalyx, F.v.M., (Syn. E. elaophora, F.v.M.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.F1., iii.,229. " Called " Mountain Ash," " Spotted Gum," etc. (For other vernacular names, with the localities in which they are used, see " Timbers.")

The essential oil of this Eucalypt is pale yellow; of pungent, penetrating, rather disagreeable odour, and exceedingly unpleasant taste. Sp. gr.,0.918; boiling point, 152� to 175�. (Wittstein and Mueller.) 100 lbs. of fresh leaves gave 16ozs. of essential oil. (Bosisto.)Victoria and New South Wales, as far north as Braidwood.

13. Eucalyptus gracilis, F.v.M., (Syn. E. fruticetorum, F v .M., (partly); E. calycogona, Turcz.; E. celastroides, Turcz.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.F1., iii., 211. "Mallee," or " Desert Gum."
Baron Mueller found that 1000 lbs. of fresh twigs of this plant (comprising perhaps 500 lbs. of leaves) yielded 54� ozs. of essential oil.
Forms, with other species of Eucalyptus, the " Mallee" country of Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland and Southwestern Australia.

14. Eucalyptus haemastoma, Smith, (Syn. E. signals, F.v.M. E. falcifolia, Miq.; and including E. micrantha, DC.); N.O., Myrtacea, B.FI., iii., 212. " White Gum," &c. (For other vernacular names of this tree, see " Timbers.")
The essential oil from the fresh leaves gives a yield of 1.875 per cent; in other words, 672 oz. of oil from one ton of leaves ; it has a slightly acid reaction, and a specific gravity of .880. (Stalker.) Dr. Bancroft observes that this oil is among the more agreeable oils derived from the genus, and describes the odour as being intermediate between oil of geranium and oil of peppermint. It has been suggested as a soap-perfume.

Messrs. Schimmel & Co. have recently published the following report on a Queensland sample of this oil : " Specific gravity 0.890; boils from 170� to 250�. This oil differs from all other described Eucalyptus oils, and has an odour resembling that of cumin oil. It contains terpene and cymol, and among the oxygenated compounds is one having a peppermint odour, probably menthon."
Illawarra (New South Wales) to Wide Bay (Queensland).

15. Eucalyptus incrassata, Labill., (Syn. E. dumosa, (B.Fl., iii., 230,) A. Cunn.; E. angulosa Schau.; E. cuspidata, Turcz.; E. costata, Behr., et F.v.M.; E. santalifolia, Miq.; E. lamprocarpa, F.v.M.; E. Muelleri, Miq.; E. fruticelorum, F.v.M.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.F1., iii., 231. A " Mallee."
Baron Mueller found that 1000 lbs. of fresh twigs of this tree (comprising, perhaps, 500 lbs. of leaves) yielded 14 ozs. of essential oil.
The whole southern part of the continent.

16. Eucalyptus leucoxylon, F.v.M., (Syn. E. sideroxylon, A. Cunn.); N.O., Myrtaceoe, B.F1., iii., 209. " Ironbark." (For the numerous other vernacular names of this tree, see " Timbers.") Bosisto (Trans. R.S., Victoria, vol. vi., 1861-4) gives the yield of essential oil at 16ozs. 7 drs. from 100 lbs. of the leaves, but says this amount must be taken as approximate only, as the leaves had lost some part of their oil through being heated in transit. This is, of course, a fraction over 1 per cent. The oil is thin, limpid, very pale yellow; the taste and smell are like that of the oil of E. oleosa ; sp. gr., 0.923 ; boiling point, 155� to 178�. (Wittstein and Mueller.)
Spencer's Gulf (South Australia), through Victoria and New South Wales to Southern Queensland.

17- Eucalyptus longifolia, Link, (Syn. E. Woolsii, F.v.M.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.F1., iii., 226." Woolly Butt," or " Bastard Box."
This essential oil has an aromatic and cooling taste, and fragrant, camphor-like smell; sp. gr. 0.940; boiling point, 194� to 215�. (Wittstein and Mueller.) The yield of essential oil from 100 lbs. of leaves, which had suffered in transit, was 3 oz. 3� drs. This oil much resembles an expressed oil, and possesses the remarkable property of imparting an indelible stain to paper, indicating that some peculiar substance is held by it in solution. Its high specific gravity bears out this supposition. (Bosisto.)
Victoria, and New South Wales, as far north as Port Jackson.

18. Eucalyptus maculata, Hook..,(Syn. E.variegata, F.v.M.; E. pellala, Benth.); N.O., Myrtaceae, B.FL, iii., 254 and 258." Spotted Gum." The fresh leaves yield, on distillation, a neutral oil of specific gravity 0.891. (Staiger.)
Port Jackson, northward, to Central Queensland.

19. Eucalyptus maculata, Hook., var. citriodora, N.O., Myrtaceae, B.Fl., iii., 257. " Lemon, or Citron-scented Gum." (For synonyms, see "Timbers.") The dry leaves yield a neutral essential oil of specific gravity .892. (Staiger.) It possesses the remarkably delicious odour of the leaves. (See E. Baileyana.)

20. Eucalyptus microcorys, F.v.M., N.O., Myrtacece, B.Fl., iii., 212. " Tallow-wood," or " Turpentine." (For other vernacular names, see " Timbers."; The fresh leaves of this tree yield 1.960 per cent, (other figures give 375 oz. to one ton of leaves) of an essential oil of an acid reaction, and a specific gravity of .896. (Staiger.) This oil has not a very agreeable odour (see remarks under E.Baileyana'), but it probably might be found useful in varnish-making. Dr. Bancroft points out that the oil distilled from the young leaves is of finer quality and more fragrant than that from the mature foliage, which remark is probably true of most Eucalypts. (See E. Baileyana.)
Northern coast districts of New South Wales to Cleveland Bay (Queensland).



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