Essential Anatomic Terms 
and Anatomic Images 
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: expanded tendon for the attachment of a flat muscle..
  Artery (a.): a vessel carrying blood from the heart through the body.
  Articulation: connection between bones.
  Autonomic nervous system: for the innervation of smooth muscle, heart muscle, and glands, consisting of a craniosacral (parasympathetic) and thoracolumbar (sympathetic) portion.
fleshy part of a muscle.
  Body: broadest or longest mass of a bone.
  Bone: inflexible structure composing skeleton.
: anatomic units connecting the arterial and venous systems; minute vessels, func�tional units of the circulatory system.
  Cartilage: substance from which some bone ossifies; gristle.
  Cell: the structural and functional body unit.
  Central nervous system (C.N.S.): the brain and spinal cord.
  Condyle: polished articular surface, usually rounded.
  Crest: ridge or border.
the shaft of a long cylindrical bone..
low convexity just perceptible.
  Endocrine: internal secretion without the use of glandular ducts.  
  Epicondyle: elevation near and above a condyle.
  Epiphyseal plate (line): growth center for elongation of bone, found between shaft and extremities of the bone.
  Epiphysis: the extremity or head of a long bone.
  Exocrine: secretion discharged by way of a duct system.
small articular area, often a pit.
  Fascia: fibrous envelopment of muscle structures and other tissues.
  Foramen: hole, perforation.
  Fossa: shallow depression.
: group of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system. 
enlarged round end of a long bone; knob.
relatively movable part of a muscle attachment.
connection between bones.
fibrous tissue binding bones together or holding tendons and muscles in place.
  Lymph vessels: like veins but walls are thinner and valves more numerous; drain tissue spaces.
a double layer of peritoneum (mesothelium), usually supporting organs.
  Muscle (m.): contractile organ capable of producing movement.
: constriction of a bone near head.
  Nerve (n.): a group of fibers outside the central nervous system.
  Neuron: nerve cell body plus its processes.
  Nucleus: group of nerve cell bodies within the central nervous system.
a fold of peritoneum connecting abdominal viscera with the stomach.
  Organ: 2 or more tissues grouped together to perform a highly specialized function.
  Origin: relatively fixed part of a muscle attachment.
Peripheral nervous system (P.N.S.):
cerebrospinal nerves and the peripheral parts of the autonomic nervous system.
  Process: projection (can be grasped with fingers).
  Protuberance: a swelling (can be felt under fingers).
plate like branch of a bone; branch of a vessel or nerve.
  Ramus communicans: a nerve branch from the anterior root of a spinal nerve to the sympa�thetic chain of ganglia; white-nerve to chain; gray-chain back to spinal nerve.
body of a long bone.
  Sheath: protective covering.
  Spine: pointed projection or sharp ridge.
  Suture: interlocking of teeth like edges.
  Symphysis: union of right and left sides in the midline.
  System: group of organs acting together to perform a highly complex but specialized function, such as nervous, skeletal, muscular, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary, endocrine, and reproductive.
Tendon: fibrous tissue securing a muscle to its attachment.
  Tissue: differentiation and specialization of groups of cells bound together to perform a special function, e.g., epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous.
  Trochanter: 1 or 2 processes on the upper part of the femur below neck.
  Trochlea: spool-shaped articular surface.
  Tubercle: small bump (can be felt under finger).
  Tuberosity: large and conspicuous bump.
Vein (v):
a vessel returning blood to the heart.
  Anatomical Terms of Direction and Movement.
  Abduction (abd.): draws away from midline.
  Adduction (add.): draws toward the midline. Anatomic position: standing erect with arms at the sides and palms of the hands turned forward.
  Anterior (ant.) or ventral (vent.): situated before or in front
: that which wrinkles skin, draws skin in.
farther from the surface (in a solid form).
  Depressor: that which lowers.
  Distal (dist.): farther from the root.
  Dorsal (dors.): toward the rear, back; also back of hand and top of foot.
that which draws upward.
  Evert (ever.): turn outward (as foot at ankle joint).
  Extension (ext.): straightening.
  External (extern.): outside, refers to wall of cavity or hollow form).
Flexion (flex.):
bending or angulation.
  Frontal (front.) or coronal (coron.): vertical; at right angles to sagittal; divides body into anterior and posterior parts
Horizontal (horiz.):
at right angles to vertical.
Inferior (inf.):
lower, farther from crown of head.
  Internal (int.): inside (refers to wall of cavity or hollow form).
  Inverted (invert.): turned inward (as foot at ankle joint).
Lateral (lat.):
.): farther from midline (or center plane).
  Levator (lev.): that which raises.
  Longitudinal (longit.): refers to long axis.
Medial (med.):
nearer to midline (or center plane).
  Median: midway, being in the middle
  Midline: divides body into a right and left side.
  Midsagittal: vertical plane at midline dividing body into right and left halves
Palmar (palm.) or volar (vol.):
palm side of hand
  Plantar (plant.): sole side of foot
  Posterior (post.) or dorsal (dors.): rear or back
  Pronator (pronat.): that which turns palm of hand downward.
  Prone: forearm and hand turned palm side down; body lying face down.
  Proximal (prox.): nearer to limb root.
Rotator (rotat.):
that which causes to revolve
Sagittal (sagit.):
vertical plane or section dividing body into right and left portions.
  Sphincter: that which regulates closing of aperture.
  Superficial (superf.): nearer to surface (refers to solid form).
  Superior (sup.): upper, nearer to crown of head.
  Supinator (supinat.): that which turns palm of hand upward.
  Supine: forearm and hand turned palm side up; body lying face up.
Tensor (tens.):
that which draws tight
  Transverse (trans.): at right angles to long axis; body divided into upper and lower parts.
  Ventral (vent.) or anterior (ant.): situated before or in front of.
  Vertical (vert.): refers to long axis in erect position.
  Volar (vol.) or palmar (palm.): palm side of hand.

Anatomic Images
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